- Slides: 19
Everything’s An Argument Chapter 1
Overview I. II. III. IV. Purposes of Argument Occasions for Argument Kinds of Argument Audiences for Argument
Purposes of Argument n n Argument does not necessarily result in a winner and loser; an invitational argument seeks to engage another in the exploration of an issue. There are many purposes for arguing, including: to inform, to convince, to explore, to make decisions, and to meditate or pray.
• • Argument aims to find the truth through evidence and reason. Persuasion attempts to change point of view and move a person to action. Extreme persuasion that disregards all fairness is propaganda. Rogerian argument seeks common ground where “opponents” agree to disagree.
n n n n Arguments to Inform: tell people something they don’t know Arguments to Convince: aim to convince rather than win over opponents Arguments to Persuade: motivate action, produce change, or win a point Arguments to Explore: examine an issue, the “opponent” is usually the prevailing thought or status quo Arguments to Make Decisions: presents pros and cons to help audience make decision Arguments to Meditate or Pray: aims to internally arrive at transformation or peace of mind Academic Arguments: argument directed to professional field or discipline such as psychology, engineering, English etc.
Occasions for Argument Aristotle gave argumentation a formula based on issues of time: * Past * Future * Present
Arguments about the Past n n n Aka forensic argument Is an argument of blame Common in business, government, and academia Rely on evidence and testimony Based on precedents (influential decisions and policies from the past) Utilize analyses of cause and effect
Arguments about the Future n n n Aka deliberative arguments Is an argument of choice Debate what will or should happen Rely on prior forensic arguments Utilize data and testimony Employ projections, drawn conclusions and reasonable guesses
Arguments about the Present epideictic or ceremonial arguments n Aka n Often about current beliefs or values n Tend to be heard at public occasions
Kinds of Argument n Arguments are categorized by stasis theory – the questions being answered by an argument determine the point: 1. Did something happen? 2. What is its nature? 3. What is its quality or cause? 4. What actions should be taken?
n n Arguments of Fact – statement, proved or disproved with specific evidence Arguments of Definition – determine if one object or action belongs to another category Arguments of Evaluation and Causality – measure or question quality Proposal Arguments – prove there is a problem
Audiences for Arguments n n n Intended readers exist in your mind Invoked readers are represented in the text “Real” readers may or may not be people the writer expected to be in the audience, but they are actual people
Considering the Audience n n n Choice of pronouns can include or exclude the audience Cultural traditions should be taken into consideration Pathos forms an emotional appeal Ethos presents the writer’s self and establishes credibility, may also address ethics Logos offers logical appeal and is particularly suited to American culture Rhetorical Situation refers to the entire process by which a speaker or writer identifies the audience, determines the message, delivers it and receives feedback
What occasion? "Ladies and gentlemen of the class of '97: Wear sunscreen. If I could offer you only one tip for the future, sunscreen would be it. The long-term benefits of sunscreen have been proved by scientists, whereas the rest of my advice has no basis more reliable than my own meandering experience. I will dispense this advice now. Enjoy the power and beauty of your youth. Oh, never mind. You will not understand the power and beauty of your youth until they've faded. But trust me, in 20 years, you'll look back at photos of yourself and recall in a way you can't grasp now how much possibility lay before you and how fabulous you really looked. You are not as fat as you imagine. ” Kurt Vonnegut, MIT Commencement Address
What occasion? Consider an episode of Law & Order where Lieutenants Stabler and Benson discuss clues and course of events in a crime. When presenting their findings to the District Attorney, what argumentative occasion are they employing?
Audience? n Your mom is snooping around on your computer and reads a steamy email you wrote for your boyfriend or girlfriend…
Audience? n An article in Newsweek magazine discusses the rising number of female college students engaging in binge drinking. They now equal men in rates of alcohol poisoning. Who is the invoked reader? What kind of argument is it?