- Slides: 31
Evaluating GIS for Disaster Management Bruce Kinner GEOG 596 A
Outline Problem Area & Project Goals Background Methodology Case study plan Significance & Limitations A new method for evaluating the readiness of a GIS to handle a disaster situation
Problem Area Problem Rationale Most GIS are not designed for disaster management and suffer critical design failures when exposed to crisis. Project Goal Develop a new method for evaluating the readiness of a GIS to handle a disaster situation.
Proposal Structure Literature review – Existing GIS building methods – Disaster studies Generate a set of system criteria Heuristics Cost-benefit analysis Case study: – Alliant Energy
Standard GIS Model
Geographic Data Tools Spatial Analysis Representation/Symbology Products (maps) Base data (National Map) Data sharing
Technical Infrastructure Hardware Software Maintenance Upgrades Programming Support
An organization Department-level bureaucracy Coordination Costs – Salaries – Supplies – Training – Overhead
Effective Use of GIS Task-level benefits Data quality Metrics Revenue
Successful Use of GIS Strategic benefits – Identify stakeholders – Enhance decision-making – Integrate with and support other systems Delivered to the public through the larger institution
Disaster Management Cycle
GIS for Disaster Management
Post-disaster Technical Infrastructure may no longer exist! Event imagery & field data collection Focused spatial analysis
Communication Dynamic Displays – User controls the view • Intuitive Interfaces – User can quickly master Maximize cognition of information
Gap analysis • Most GIS do not have disaster as a primary function. • Most disaster studies are focused on a single post-disaster response. • Little contribution to the preparation and mitigation phases
Cost/benefit analysis • Standard applications are sufficient • Justify upgrades • New solutions are needed
Heuristic evaluation • Usability engineering • Convert subjective judgments into numeric scores • Rapidly determine the optimal solution • Test how well each topic is satisfied
GIS for Disaster Management Readiness Heuristic Scoring (based on Nielsen, 1994) 0 = The GIS will be unable to address this issue. 1 = The GIS may superficially address some aspect of the problem. 2 = The GIS will be able to address a small part of the problem, but there are major aspects of the problem that are not explained. 3 = The GIS will be able to address a major part of the problem, but there are some aspects of the problem that are not explained. 4 = The GIS provides a fairly complete explanation of the problem, but there is still more to the problem than is explained by the heuristic. 5 = The GIS will be able to handle this issue and provides a complete explanation of how it will handle the problem.
A new evaluation method • Series of questions using heuristic scoring • Topic Areas include: • – Hazard Analysis to identify likely disasters – Scenario-based disaster simulations – System availability and interoperability – Data gathering/sharing – Spatial analysis – Methods of communication – User interfaces and display methods – Costs and benefits Answers detail current state / future state
Question examples • Has necessary base data for disasters been identified, such as imagery or post-disaster data sets? • Have any needed data sharing arrangements for back-ups or base data been established? • What data are associated with effective use? • What are the geographical units? • What form will the data have in the data model (vector/raster, file format)? • Has data been loaded into the system? • What are the primary functional operations required of the GIS during a disaster? • What forms of spatial analysis will be used?
Proposed Case Study • • • Alliant Energy – Feb 2007 Ice Storm – June 2008 Flood Score and detail the GIS – Ranked – Grouped Benefits – Recommendations – Modify heuristic
Significance / Limitations • Applicable to any GIS • No disaster necessary • Iterative approach Dynamic nature of systems Number of evaluators
Future Research • Evaluating multiple systems • Ability to compare systems • What benefits are most commonly identified? • What types of displays are most desired by users? • What advances in spatial analysis are required to meet the needs of disaster management?
Complete List of Questions for Heuristic Analysis
Hazard Analysis & Scenarios • Has a Hazard Analysis Process been used to identify likely types of disasters within the scope of the GIS? • Have disaster scenarios been developed for each type of disaster identified in the Hazard Analysis process? • Has the relevant literature been reviewed for the likely types of disasters?
System availability • Does the GIS have redundant access in case of the loss of the primary database? • Does the GIS have a backup that can operate independently of a network? • Is the performance of the redundant access and/or backup sufficient for effective operational use? • Is there any data from other systems needed during a disaster?
Base Data and Spatial Analysis • Has necessary base data for disasters been identified, such as imagery or post-disaster data sets? • Have any needed data sharing arrangements for back-ups or base data been established? • What data are associated with effective use? • What are the geographical units? • What form will the data have in the data model (vector/raster, file format)? • Has data been loaded into the system? • What are the primary functional operations required of the GIS during a disaster? • What forms of spatial analysis will be used?
Communication • Have the users of GIS information during likely disasters been identified? • What type of organization is using the geographical information? • What is the purpose for using geographical information? • What is the decision making level of the user? • What are steps of the decision making process where geographical information is to be used? • What is the response time of the GIS? • How is the task of handling spatial data organized?
Intuitive Interfaces and Dynamic Displays • How will the data be represented (symbology) both in the GIS and on maps? • What is the form of the geographical product? • Why is this particular form of display useful? • What amount of geographic information is used?
Costs and Benefits • Who receives the benefits? • What are the benefits? • How are the benefits measured? • What are the costs of supplying the data needed to realize the benefits? • Has training been completed for GIS and emergency personnel?