Evaluating GIS for Disaster Management Bruce Kinner GEOG

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Evaluating GIS for Disaster Management Bruce Kinner GEOG 596 A

Evaluating GIS for Disaster Management Bruce Kinner GEOG 596 A

Outline Problem Area & Project Goals Background Methodology Case study plan Significance & Limitations

Outline Problem Area & Project Goals Background Methodology Case study plan Significance & Limitations A new method for evaluating the readiness of a GIS to handle a disaster situation

Problem Area Problem Rationale Most GIS are not designed for disaster management and suffer

Problem Area Problem Rationale Most GIS are not designed for disaster management and suffer critical design failures when exposed to crisis. Project Goal Develop a new method for evaluating the readiness of a GIS to handle a disaster situation.

Proposal Structure Literature review – Existing GIS building methods – Disaster studies Generate a

Proposal Structure Literature review – Existing GIS building methods – Disaster studies Generate a set of system criteria Heuristics Cost-benefit analysis Case study: – Alliant Energy

Standard GIS Model

Standard GIS Model

Geographic Data Tools Spatial Analysis Representation/Symbology Products (maps) Base data (National Map) Data sharing

Geographic Data Tools Spatial Analysis Representation/Symbology Products (maps) Base data (National Map) Data sharing

Technical Infrastructure Hardware Software Maintenance Upgrades Programming Support

Technical Infrastructure Hardware Software Maintenance Upgrades Programming Support

An organization Department-level bureaucracy Coordination Costs – Salaries – Supplies – Training – Overhead

An organization Department-level bureaucracy Coordination Costs – Salaries – Supplies – Training – Overhead

Effective Use of GIS Task-level benefits Data quality Metrics Revenue

Effective Use of GIS Task-level benefits Data quality Metrics Revenue

Successful Use of GIS Strategic benefits – Identify stakeholders – Enhance decision-making – Integrate

Successful Use of GIS Strategic benefits – Identify stakeholders – Enhance decision-making – Integrate with and support other systems Delivered to the public through the larger institution

Disaster Management Cycle

Disaster Management Cycle

GIS for Disaster Management

GIS for Disaster Management

Post-disaster Technical Infrastructure may no longer exist! Event imagery & field data collection Focused

Post-disaster Technical Infrastructure may no longer exist! Event imagery & field data collection Focused spatial analysis

Communication Dynamic Displays – User controls the view • Intuitive Interfaces – User can

Communication Dynamic Displays – User controls the view • Intuitive Interfaces – User can quickly master Maximize cognition of information

Gap analysis • Most GIS do not have disaster as a primary function. •

Gap analysis • Most GIS do not have disaster as a primary function. • Most disaster studies are focused on a single post-disaster response. • Little contribution to the preparation and mitigation phases

Cost/benefit analysis • Standard applications are sufficient • Justify upgrades • New solutions are

Cost/benefit analysis • Standard applications are sufficient • Justify upgrades • New solutions are needed

Heuristic evaluation • Usability engineering • Convert subjective judgments into numeric scores • Rapidly

Heuristic evaluation • Usability engineering • Convert subjective judgments into numeric scores • Rapidly determine the optimal solution • Test how well each topic is satisfied

GIS for Disaster Management Readiness Heuristic Scoring (based on Nielsen, 1994) 0 = The

GIS for Disaster Management Readiness Heuristic Scoring (based on Nielsen, 1994) 0 = The GIS will be unable to address this issue. 1 = The GIS may superficially address some aspect of the problem. 2 = The GIS will be able to address a small part of the problem, but there are major aspects of the problem that are not explained. 3 = The GIS will be able to address a major part of the problem, but there are some aspects of the problem that are not explained. 4 = The GIS provides a fairly complete explanation of the problem, but there is still more to the problem than is explained by the heuristic. 5 = The GIS will be able to handle this issue and provides a complete explanation of how it will handle the problem.

A new evaluation method • Series of questions using heuristic scoring • Topic Areas

A new evaluation method • Series of questions using heuristic scoring • Topic Areas include: • – Hazard Analysis to identify likely disasters – Scenario-based disaster simulations – System availability and interoperability – Data gathering/sharing – Spatial analysis – Methods of communication – User interfaces and display methods – Costs and benefits Answers detail current state / future state

Question examples • Has necessary base data for disasters been identified, such as imagery

Question examples • Has necessary base data for disasters been identified, such as imagery or post-disaster data sets? • Have any needed data sharing arrangements for back-ups or base data been established? • What data are associated with effective use? • What are the geographical units? • What form will the data have in the data model (vector/raster, file format)? • Has data been loaded into the system? • What are the primary functional operations required of the GIS during a disaster? • What forms of spatial analysis will be used?

Proposed Case Study • • • Alliant Energy – Feb 2007 Ice Storm –

Proposed Case Study • • • Alliant Energy – Feb 2007 Ice Storm – June 2008 Flood Score and detail the GIS – Ranked – Grouped Benefits – Recommendations – Modify heuristic

Significance / Limitations • Applicable to any GIS • No disaster necessary • Iterative

Significance / Limitations • Applicable to any GIS • No disaster necessary • Iterative approach Dynamic nature of systems Number of evaluators

Future Research • Evaluating multiple systems • Ability to compare systems • What benefits

Future Research • Evaluating multiple systems • Ability to compare systems • What benefits are most commonly identified? • What types of displays are most desired by users? • What advances in spatial analysis are required to meet the needs of disaster management?

Questions?

Questions?

Complete List of Questions for Heuristic Analysis

Complete List of Questions for Heuristic Analysis

Hazard Analysis & Scenarios • Has a Hazard Analysis Process been used to identify

Hazard Analysis & Scenarios • Has a Hazard Analysis Process been used to identify likely types of disasters within the scope of the GIS? • Have disaster scenarios been developed for each type of disaster identified in the Hazard Analysis process? • Has the relevant literature been reviewed for the likely types of disasters?

System availability • Does the GIS have redundant access in case of the loss

System availability • Does the GIS have redundant access in case of the loss of the primary database? • Does the GIS have a backup that can operate independently of a network? • Is the performance of the redundant access and/or backup sufficient for effective operational use? • Is there any data from other systems needed during a disaster?

Base Data and Spatial Analysis • Has necessary base data for disasters been identified,

Base Data and Spatial Analysis • Has necessary base data for disasters been identified, such as imagery or post-disaster data sets? • Have any needed data sharing arrangements for back-ups or base data been established? • What data are associated with effective use? • What are the geographical units? • What form will the data have in the data model (vector/raster, file format)? • Has data been loaded into the system? • What are the primary functional operations required of the GIS during a disaster? • What forms of spatial analysis will be used?

Communication • Have the users of GIS information during likely disasters been identified? •

Communication • Have the users of GIS information during likely disasters been identified? • What type of organization is using the geographical information? • What is the purpose for using geographical information? • What is the decision making level of the user? • What are steps of the decision making process where geographical information is to be used? • What is the response time of the GIS? • How is the task of handling spatial data organized?

Intuitive Interfaces and Dynamic Displays • How will the data be represented (symbology) both

Intuitive Interfaces and Dynamic Displays • How will the data be represented (symbology) both in the GIS and on maps? • What is the form of the geographical product? • Why is this particular form of display useful? • What amount of geographic information is used?

Costs and Benefits • Who receives the benefits? • What are the benefits? •

Costs and Benefits • Who receives the benefits? • What are the benefits? • How are the benefits measured? • What are the costs of supplying the data needed to realize the benefits? • Has training been completed for GIS and emergency personnel?