European monitoring of particulate matter at the local

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European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale • Introduction - EMEP and its relation to other major European monitoring activities (emphasis on particulate matter) • Future monitoring strategy • Global or hemispheric issues www. emep. int 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 European monitoring

US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale It started with ”acid rain” and fish death Area with lost fish stocks - now developed into a multi-compound and multi-effect framework; Acidification and Eutrophication (ecosystems) Sulphur, Nitrogen, base cations Photochemical oxidants (ecosystems, health, climate) Tropospheric ozone, precursors (NOx, VOC) Heavy metals (ecosystems and health) Pb, Cd, Hg, +++ Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (ecosystems, health) PAH, PCB, HCB, Chlordane, DDT/DDE. . . Particulate matter (health, climate) PM mass, chemical speciation, physical characterisation Gills - not damaged 3/12/2021 Gills - damaged Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European of particulate matter at the local, regional. Air and. Pollution global scale UN-ECEmonitoring

European of particulate matter at the local, regional. Air and. Pollution global scale UN-ECEmonitoring Convention on Long-Range Transboundary - 49 Parties - 8 Specific protocols US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) - 41 Parties The EMEP vision; To be the main science based and policy-driven instrument for international cooperation in atmospheric monitoring and modelling activities, emission inventories and projections, and integrated assessment to help solve transboundary air pollution problems in Europe 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 European monitoring

US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Information fluxes within CLRTAP Implementation Committee WGSR WGE EMEP Assessment of effects Proposed strategies CCE Critical load maps Critical load Stock at risk Scenarios CIAM Emission data Source-receptor relationships Costs, technologies Assessment of Air Quality trends, transport fluxes MSC-W MSC-E Transport fluxes Emissions CCC Monitored data Countries 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Exceed. of critical loads for waters 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Proposal for a reformulation of the objectives for EMEP monitoring; ”The core objective of EMEP monitoring is to provide in the long-term a full description of the essential physico-chemical data in air and precipitiation to allow the understanding of long-range transboundary transmission of air pollutants and the processes occuring during transmission (eq. Level 1 + level 2). For this purpose observations should be made with a temporal resolution allowing resolve the synoptic scale transport (thus recommended not to exceed 24 hours) EMEP monitoring shall also include the use of other data in order to adequately assess of deposition fluxes, exposure levels and their associated trends”. 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 EMEP monitoring strategy, 2004 -2009 Key issues; • Long term operation of atmosperic chemistry monitoring is essential • Process understanding, model development for cost efficient abatement and for documenting changes • Several requirements • Funding, Competence, Ovnership and national involvement, transparency, comparability, quality, • Foundation in Conventions or legislation is important to ensure long-term operation • It is in the interest of the Parties that monitoring is cost-efficient and have a multi-purpose application • Make of use existing infrastructure and avoid duplication • Integration of scales • Integration of topics • How to make use of ”best science” and new technologies • But at the same time conserve consistency 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Key elements

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Key elements in the new strategy Requirements with respect to site location, representativity, network density parameters to be requested temporal resolution methods to be used new opportunities Describes the various topics, current status and monitoring requirements Level 1 requirements Proposal for level 2 Level 3 activities required Financial constraints 3/12/2021 US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Network density Reflect phenomenon of interest Resolve geographical gradients Correspond with model resolution users request higher resolution ”All” Parties should participate Lower density at level 2 and level 3 Parameters required to adequately understand. . . having an effect Precursors, indirectly influencing, . . Use other data where existing and relevant New substances Temporal resolution Correspond with model resolution Correspond with relevant processes Allow the study air mass origin Data quality New use; intercont. , EO, data assimilation. . . Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Data availability and quality 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Results from the 20 th EMEP laboratory inter-calibration (absolute value of the average percent error). 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Field intercomparison – Switzerland (Dübendorf) The method for measuring SO 2 and NO 2 (TEI 43 C TL) at the Swiss EMEP sites are similar to the one tested in Dübendorf, i. e. UVfluorescence and chemiluminescence (Horiba APNA 360) monitors respectively. SO 2 The SO 2 monitor has interference with NO and H 2 O 3/12/2021 NO 2 For NO 2, the bias may to some extent be explained by the nonspecific NO 2 detection with molybdenum converters. Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Field intercomparison – The Netherlands (Bilthoven) The Dutch measurements of SO 2 and NO 2 are done using UV-fluorescence and chemiluminescence monitors respectively. The analysis of SO 42 - and NO 3 - are done on PM 10 aerosol samples SO SO 2 NO 2 3/12/2021 4 NO 3 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Comparison of SO 2 measurements (filterpack vs. TCM) in Germany and Turkey Schauinsland (DE 03) Zingst (DE 09) 3/12/2021 Neuglobsow (DE 07) Cubuk II, TR 01 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 • Insufficient site/parameter density – South, East. . . , – Aerosol data, gas-particle resolved chemistry, flux data – Less in-situ research measurements expected • Large increase in the monitoring of ”target parameters” EMEP ozone sites 3/12/2021 EMEP VOC sites Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 PM 10 measurements (2001) 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 A ”level” approach is introduced 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Mandatory for

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Mandatory for all Parties US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 PM 2, 5 15 -25 sites across Europe (regional collaboration) 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Voluntary (also non-EMEP) 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Major challenges;

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Major challenges; • Emission inventories • Relevant and adequate measurement programme • Formation of secondary in- and organic particulate matter • Particle dynamics • Model development and validation • Integrated assessment US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Requirements to the measurement programme • Chemical mass closure – full characterisation of inorganic compounds – EC/OC determination – Improved OC characterisation – Speciation as function of size • Physical characterisation – number size distribution – surface area distribution • Vertical resolution – Lidar • (Optical properties) 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Comparison of PPM emission estimates for Poland National emissions relate only to stationary sources, and if mobile sources are included values would be significantly higher than the two international estimates 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Radiative forcing

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Radiative forcing by sulphate and 3/12/2021 US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 by carbonaceous material Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Mean aerosol chemical composition in Gent (B), Bologna (I) and Barcelona (E) at 50<PM 10<60 µg m-3 level (Putaud et al. , 2002). 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 EMEP EC/OC campaign (running from 1 st July 2002 untill 30 June 2003) Samples are taken during 24 hours (Tuesday-Wednesday) Analysis by Termo-optical method at the EMEP CCC Intercomparison with two external laboratories (Hillamo and Maenhaut) OC-speciation for a subset of samples 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Influence of emissions from North America, Europe, and Asia on global ozone concentrations (from Li et al. , 2002). 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Intercontinental transport of Hg Deposition to Europe 3/12/2021 MSC-E Deposition from Europe, t/y Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Average Tropospheric NO 2 Column Density During 1997, GOME Vertical NO 2 Column Density [1014 molec/cm 2] 3/12/2021 Carsten Leue, 1999 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Mean aerosol optical depth at 0. 555µm over Europe in August 1997 derived from ATSR-2 satellite data. Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (EU/ESA) Four elements Space systems - In-Situ systems - Data integration and info - Services ”To adequately deploy GMES services by 2008, substantial improvements will be required in in-situ observing systems both at EU and global levels. . . ” ”GMES will complement existing field based monitoring networks by closing gaps, ensuring sustainability of services and securing access to data and information. In the longer term, the objective will be to progressively improve coordination in the deployment and operations of different thematic in-situ networks and surveys to optimise national investments and avoid redundant data collection”. 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 EU-FP 5; GMES (to assist definition of GMES (2008) 32 initial period projects 5 on atmosphere (CREATE, DAEDALUS, APMOSPHERE, Met-Moniteur, GMES-GATO) ESA; GSE (GMES Service Element) development of technical services (CAPACITY, PROMOTE) EU-FP 6; SPACE/GMES Call for an IP to develop an ”Pre-operational service. . ” From 2008; GMES capacity established -> 200 m. Euro per annum 3/12/2021 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Jennings (NUI,

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale Jennings (NUI, Galway); Tørseth (NILU); Wilson (JRC); Schulz, (LSCE); Baltensperger (PSI); Wiedensohler (If. T); ten. Brink (ECN); de Leeuw (TNO); Viisanen (FMI); Kulmala (HEL); Mihalopoulos, (ECPL); Boesenberg, (MPG-IMET) US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 The goals of the CREATE and DAEDALUS projects are to advise on the optimum use of aerosol in-situ, ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to meet the users’ needs, to deliver data and information to the users, to make proposals for aerosol monitoring as part of the European capacity to be established for GMES and to develop the methodologies necessary for delivering operational aerosol products. Funded under the EU 5 FP Programme Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development : EESD-ENV-2002 -GMES 3/12/2021 www. nilu. no/projects/ccc/create Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Lessons learned and Deficiencies/Gaps Recommendations • Long term sampling of aerosols is lacking and is needed • Need for longer term sustainable observational sites with dedicated funding to determine trends • There is lack of coverage in the vertical (from LIDAR, balloon, aircraft and satellite platforms) for both the troposphere and stratosphere • Requirement of harmonised in situ networks • Lack of new fast response aerosol techniques and instrumentation to determine aerosol chemical composition and aerosol optical properties • Integration is required between ground based observation networks with satellite data and with modelled products • Insufficient ground based networks representative of major aerosol types and regions for model intercomparisons and ground truth satellite validation • In-situ Observing Systems lack dedicated funding support and rely mostly on ‘ad hoc’ funding • ‘Supersites’ are required to provide leading edge monitoring capabilities • Validation of satellite derived products is required using in-situ ground truth and vertical profile / columnar data • Need to set up a QA/QC centre(s) in order to ensure quality data for data users • Future funding programmes should include provision for support of training of station operators and data providers. • Access to European satellite products have proven to be • Archiving of data with a uniform data exchange standard, and slow support for submission to Database Centres should be of prime • Lack of accurate emission inventories of aerosols and importance in future Programme Proposal calls their precursors which are needed for model inputs • Need for Supersites with advanced instrumentation (for aerosols • Interaction between existing observing stations needs and gases) to add to usual measurements made at other network strengthening monitoring sites • Enhancement of existing observing networks as well as development of new in-situ observing systems are needed 3/12/2021 • Need for improved access of data, and transferability of data Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU) products to user groups.

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US

European monitoring of particulate matter at the local, regional and global scale 3/12/2021 US EPA/EMEP Workshop on Particulate matter New Orelans, 20 -23. April 2004 Kjetil Tørseth (EMEP-CCC/NILU)