european capacity building initiative ecbi ECBI PreCOP Workshop

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european capacity building initiative ecbi ECBI Pre-COP Workshop for LDC Africa Negotiators 27 November

european capacity building initiative ecbi ECBI Pre-COP Workshop for LDC Africa Negotiators 27 November 2010 REDD in Climate Change negotiation and possible expected outcomes in Cancun By: Abdalla Gaafar Mohamed for sustained capacity building in support of international climate change negotiations pour un renforcement durable des capacités en appui aux négociations internationales sur les changements climatiques

Deforestation v As estimated by the FAO (2005), deforestation continues at an alarming rate

Deforestation v As estimated by the FAO (2005), deforestation continues at an alarming rate of approximately 13 million hectares per year (for the period 1990– 2005). = immediate release of the carbon originally stored in the trees as CO 2 emissions Ø The IPCC noted that reducing or preventing deforestation is the mitigation option

REDD v. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries was first

REDD v. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries was first introduced into the COP agenda at its eleventh session in Montreal (December 2005). • Recognition of the contribution of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries to climate change ( need to take action to reduce it). Ø Deforestation and degradation account for almost 20% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission

REDD v. COP decision on “Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries (Decision 2/CP.

REDD v. COP decision on “Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries (Decision 2/CP. 13). Providing Ø mandate for several elements and actions by Parties to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries Ø set of indicative guidance for the implementation and evaluation of demonstration activities

REDD (methodologies) • As requested by COP the SBSTA initiated a programme of work

REDD (methodologies) • As requested by COP the SBSTA initiated a programme of work In 2008 on methodological issues(policy approaches, recommendations on possible methodological approaches and positive incentives that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation)(COP at its fourteenth session) • In 2008 and 2009, policy approaches and positive incentives regarding reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries and the role of conservation and sustainable management of forests in developing countries were considered under the process of the Bali Action Plan(REDD-plus)

Monitor Forest cover change • Methods and tools to estimate and monitor changes in

Monitor Forest cover change • Methods and tools to estimate and monitor changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks and GHG emissions, incremental changes due to sustainable management of forest, and reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are essential. • A combination of remote-sensing and ground-based assessments could be one of the suitable approach be used to estimate emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation, as well as carbon stock changes • New methods and tools are emerging.

REDD for Poor v Huge amount of money could flow to developing countries (aid

REDD for Poor v Huge amount of money could flow to developing countries (aid flow to forestry sector). Funds for reducing emission from deforestation and degradation through the implementation of various measures and policies Ø Reducing conflict over resources Ø REDD can aim to avoid increased threat to the poor Ø REDD could deliver benefit directly to the poor v Effort should be devoted to ensure benefit of poor from REDD

REDD in ongoing climate talk v The main body for REDD-plus negotiation is AWG-LCA

REDD in ongoing climate talk v The main body for REDD-plus negotiation is AWG-LCA but still the negotiation undertaken by AWG-KP is also relevant to REDDplus(discussed in the sub-group on ‘ 1(b)(iii)’, as in the Bali Action Plan) v During Many informal consultation meeting, REDD was discussed within different groups such as G 77+China and the African group to reaching a common position on the Chair s text (no common position was reached)

Key Points and main issues in REDD+ discussion v. Scope and Objectives of REDD

Key Points and main issues in REDD+ discussion v. Scope and Objectives of REDD + v. Safeguards v. Protection of natural forest and restoring degraded natural forest and ensuring rights of indigenous people. v. Gender considerations v. Emissions global reduction goal for deforestation v. Retaining forest carbon v. Accountability mechanisms (Measuring, monitoring and verifying (MRV) systems) v. Institutional arrangements (financial mechanisms)

Developing Countries: Issues v. The objective of REDD-plus is to provide positive incentives for

Developing Countries: Issues v. The objective of REDD-plus is to provide positive incentives for the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the stabilization of forest carbon stocks consistently with the sustainable development goals of each developing country v. The scope of REDD-plus must include the following activities: ØReduction of emissions from deforestation ØReduction of emissions from forest degradation ØStabilization of forest cover and thereby forest carbon stocks ØEnhancement of forest carbon stocks through afforestation, reforestation and SMF ØVoluntary participation of developing countries ØAccommodate the diverse national circumstances of the developing countries ØConsider the national sovereignty and the right to use forests to support livelihoods and national development

Developing Countries: Issues v. The key principles that a REDD+ mechanism must be based

Developing Countries: Issues v. The key principles that a REDD+ mechanism must be based on the following: ØConsistency with national sustainable development goals ØBe subject to accessible, equitable, adequate, predictable and sustainable financing and technology support including support for capacity-building that is new and additional to existing development assistance. v. REDD-plus mechanism must operate under the COP and be guided by and fully accountable to it ØThere should be flexibility in the setting of reference levels to incentivize countries with high forest cover but low historical rates of deforestation and forest degradation ØPhased Approach for REDD-plus implementation v. Un acceptable issues includes: ØSetting of any target (for reduction of deforestation rate)that is expressed in numerical form to be achieved within a stipulated time/period ØAny provision that requires countries to account for emissions taking place outside their national boundaries

Convergence • Phased approach to REDD-plus - starting with a readiness phase before implementation

Convergence • Phased approach to REDD-plus - starting with a readiness phase before implementation • All parties considered safeguards, including the involvement of Indigenous Peoples and local communities with emphasis on Indigenous Peoples rights

Convergence • Considering REDD as an opportunity for livelihood improvement • Consistency with national

Convergence • Considering REDD as an opportunity for livelihood improvement • Consistency with national circumstances • Incorporation of a gender perspective • Inclusion of natural forest conservation safeguard

Other issues raised v Consistency with national legislation and relevant international agreements v Inclusion

Other issues raised v Consistency with national legislation and relevant international agreements v Inclusion of a clear safeguard against the conversion of native forests to plantations Ø The need of some countries to exploit forests to combat poverty in their countries (argued against safeguards concerning the conversion of native forests into plantation). Ø Consideration of the high dependency of local people on forests for their daily livelihood needs

REDD+ funding • Funding sources for REDD were discussed where Many developing countries prefer

REDD+ funding • Funding sources for REDD were discussed where Many developing countries prefer fundbased (not to be linked to the market mechanism) • while many of developed and some of developing countries prefer market based or combined-based.

REDD+ Copenhagen v Understanding the social, economical, institutional and political conditions that drive deforestation

REDD+ Copenhagen v Understanding the social, economical, institutional and political conditions that drive deforestation and forests degradation and land use change at local, national and international levels v Framework for actions to be developed to ensure effective means of implementation and finance through phase approach that, should be flexible and useful for building confidence and provide an opportunity for actions Ø Identification of effective measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (policies and actions) Ø Identification of alternative sources of financing where funding approaches to REDD to be designed in such a way as to safeguard the interests of the poor

REDD in Copenhagen Accord REDD was mentioned in the Copenhagen Accord in para 6

REDD in Copenhagen Accord REDD was mentioned in the Copenhagen Accord in para 6 and 8 as follows: v. Para (6) We recognize the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests and agree on the need to provide positive incentives to such actions through the immediate establishment of a mechanism including REDD-plus, to enable the mobilization of financial resources from developed countries v. Para (8). Scaled up, new and additional, predictable and adequate funding as well as improved access shall be provided to developing countries, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, to enable and support enhanced action on mitigation, including substantial finance to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD-plus), adaptation, technology development and transfer and capacity-building, for enhanced implementation of the Convention.

Despite the REDD-plus negotiations have progressed very well in Copenhagen but still no decisions

Despite the REDD-plus negotiations have progressed very well in Copenhagen but still no decisions and legally binding agreement was achieved. Obviously it seems that discussion on REDD-plus issues is still need to be continued in Mexico and after

African forests (target for REDD) • 635 million hectares (16 per cent of the

African forests (target for REDD) • 635 million hectares (16 per cent of the world's forests) • According to FAO, Africa lost some 23 million hectares of forest during 1980 s and another 20 million ha in the 1990 s. • It is important in climate change because of their potential as a sink for carbon dioxide. • High rates of deforestation and forest degradation • Unsustainable utilization and management • In many countries mostly protective • Have vital and prominent roles in Integrated agro-silvo-pastoral production systems (crop and animal production) • Exist in remote, marginalized regions where services are usually not available • In other countries Forests support sectors in many African economies, including support the majority of rural communities which are mainly poor

The problem: High Dependency on forests v. National energy consumption (it goes up to

The problem: High Dependency on forests v. National energy consumption (it goes up to 80%) v. Feed for national herds (30 ->50% during drought period) v. Employment opportunities in rural areas v. Requirements of woody and non woody products v. Food security and environmental services

The Solution : REDD !! v Policies and Legislation (enabling environment) v. Energy Problem

The Solution : REDD !! v Policies and Legislation (enabling environment) v. Energy Problem Ø Energy alternatives ØEnergy saving v. Sustainable management ( woody and NWFPs, people participation, efficient utilization: housing , furniture…) v. Afforestation and reforestation v. Controlling Agricultural Expansion v. Over grazing ( Improving natural range…. ) v. Alternative livelihood support v Qualified staff , Capable Institution and sustainable accessible funding

REDD in Cancun v. The basis for the AWG-LCA’s negotiations Ø Negotiating text prepared

REDD in Cancun v. The basis for the AWG-LCA’s negotiations Ø Negotiating text prepared for AWG-LCA 12 in Tianjin (FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/14) ØIn-session draft texts and notes by the facilitators (informal texts criticized by many parties in Tianjin that not fully reflect the views of Parties) v. The AWG-LCA negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/14) In the negotiating text REDD-plus is addressed briefly in Chapter I. C, section 3, paragraphs 52 -53 (options 1 and 2). Chapter VI is the main chapter on REDD-plus (paragraphs 1 -14 in Options 1 and 2). ØOption 1 contains several proposed changes by Bolivia and Saudi Arabia to the ‘text to facilitate negotiations among Parties’ prepared by the Chair for AWG 11 in August Ø Option 2 contains the ‘Text to facilitate negotiations among Parties’, prepared by the Chair for AWG-LCA 11 in August

Optimism for Cancun v. There is bad need for decisions on REDD to encourage

Optimism for Cancun v. There is bad need for decisions on REDD to encourage developing countries to take actions to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation v. Statement of the AWG-LCA Chair who identified adaptation, REDD-plus, agriculture and technology as issues that could formulate a base for decisions at COP 16 v. EU Environment Ministers agreed negotiating strategy for the Cancun decisions to be adopted in Cancun: • adaptation; mitigation; technology; capacity building, REDD+, (MRV); finance and market-based mechanisms • Ministers commitment to make considerable progress for REDD + guidelines, rules and actions • secure safeguards, the rights of indigenous peoples

Optimism for Cancun v. Based on Copenhagen negotiation on REDD, some parameters for REDD

Optimism for Cancun v. Based on Copenhagen negotiation on REDD, some parameters for REDD decision is expected on how to address emissions from REDD+ including the following aspects ØScope and objectives ØSafeguards on biodiversity ØSocial benefits ØRights of indigenous peoples and local communities ØConservation of natural forests ØMeasuring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) ØFinance v. Challenging issues such as New adequate , equitable and accessible financing mechanism is expected not to be resolved v. Expectations are more higher for South Africa to reach legally binding agreement on REDD+ and other issues