EUMETSAT 2004 March 24 th Earth Observation Dep

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EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Earth Observation Dep. t Monitoring the summer of 2003

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Earth Observation Dep. t Monitoring the summer of 2003 forest fires of Spain and Portugal, part I Automatic Fire Detection and Characterization by MSG/SEVIRI A. Bartoloni, E. Cisbani, E. Zappitelli (Telespazio/Rome) B. Greco (ESA/ESRIN)

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th TOC / Credit Earth Observation Dep. t v Approach

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th TOC / Credit Earth Observation Dep. t v Approach § Assumptions § Fire Equation v Implementation § SEVIRI data § Processor Flow Chart v Performance on real data Credit: - ESA/CDMC: Prototype processor implementation and § Validated Data analysis of real SEVIRI data § Comparison § Fire Evolution Characterization (this presentation) § False Alarm / Efficiency - ESA/Fires. Med: Simulated data v Conclusions § User Needs § Prospect analysis - FIRES/RIT-NASA: Original ideas (for GOES)

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Rationale Earth Observation Dep. t Use of existing Satellite

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Rationale Earth Observation Dep. t Use of existing Satellite Sensors for fire detection and characterization v Need of frequent revisit § Geo-stationary Polar sensors v Need of high spatial sensitivity § Smart processing § Use Polar sensors data Optimal Sensors (non existing) Geo-stationary sensors

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Approach Earth Observation Dep. t v Procedure based on

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Approach Earth Observation Dep. t v Procedure based on a simple Radiative Transfer Model Include atmospheric transmissivity, ground emissivity, solar term v Fast changing quantities from geostationary sensor/SEVIRI Background/Fire Temperatures/Size, Atmospheric water vapor content v Improved spatial sensitivity by multi band, sub-pixel exploitation SWIR/MIR/TIR atmospheric windows v Contrast analysis for fire temporal changes enhancement Looking for thermal ground changes v Quasi-stationary parameters from polar sensors Ground emissivity

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Fire Equation Fire Background (t+Dt) Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Fire Equation Fire Background (t+Dt) Earth Observation Dep. t = (t) Effective Pixel Fraction Change Fire temperature Background temperature Atmospheric and Solar changes neglected (except SWIR) One equation for each atmospheric window in IR/TIR The technique is sensible to fire variations

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Input Data: SEVIRI Radiances MODIS SW IR ch 3

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Input Data: SEVIRI Radiances MODIS SW IR ch 3 IR ch 4 M s R TI ch 0 7, 1 9, v Overall Excellent Image Quality v Geolocation pretty good § Frame coregistration second order effect in detection v Saturation effects on very large fires (see images) SEVIRI Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Implementation: Processor SEVIRI Radiances Ground Emissivity Compute Acquisition Geometry

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Implementation: Processor SEVIRI Radiances Ground Emissivity Compute Acquisition Geometry Earth Observation Dep. t Processor: Pixel Based, fully automated and parallelizzable Minimize Fire System of Equations Sea/Land plain Cloud Masking Estimate Bck. Temperature Cuts on: - Minimization Residue - Fire Temperature - Minimum Fire Size - Minimum Power Estimate TPW Evaluate Solar Terms Detected Fire Characteristics

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Data for Processor Characterization Earth Observation Dep. t v

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Data for Processor Characterization Earth Observation Dep. t v SEVIRI/MSG Data: § sparse temporal coverage due to acquisition station malfunctioning § Commissioning data! v Raw Validated Data: § MODIS: ch 21/22 + ch 31 § BIRD: MIR 3. 4 -4. 2 + TIR 8. 5 -9. 3 mm Heavy Cloudy v Test Case: § Portugal Fires beginning of August 2003 v No Ground Truth analyzed ! BIRD Calibrated/Geolocated Images from BIRD Team @ DLR

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Validation Fires v Visually identify hot spots on BIRD

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Validation Fires v Visually identify hot spots on BIRD MIR image and corresponding ones on MODIS Red: BIRD Yellow: MODIS (4 Aug) Earth Observation Dep. t v Define background and fire ROIs Background Fire v Apply the traditional sub-pixel Dozier method (MIR/TIR) to the fire ROI v Assume as firing pixels those with temperature above 350 -400 K (starting plateau) v Retrieve hot spot characteristics: § fire / background temperature § burning area § fire power § location 04/Aug/03 12: 03 BIRD/MIR

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Validated Data Consistency BIRD – MODIS comparison Earth Observation

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Validated Data Consistency BIRD – MODIS comparison Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th SEVIRI Detection on 04/Aug/03 Earth Observation Dep. t 09:

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th SEVIRI Detection on 04/Aug/03 Earth Observation Dep. t 09: 00 09: 15 10: 45 11: 00 11: 15 11: 30 11: 45 12: 00 12: 15 B T 12: 30 12: 45 14: 30 A Available SEVIRI frames (15 minutes apart) on 4/Aug/2003 T: Terra MODIS B: Bird A: Aqua MODIS

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th SEVIRI Detection BIRD 12: 03 04/Aug/03 downsampled Earth Observation

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th SEVIRI Detection BIRD 12: 03 04/Aug/03 downsampled Earth Observation Dep. t Red: BIRD Yellow: MODIS (4 Aug) Green: SEVIRI (4 Aug) SEVIRI 04/Aug/03 12: 00 upsampled

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th BIRD MIR detail Performance Earth Observation Dep. t Box

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th BIRD MIR detail Performance Earth Observation Dep. t Box = SEVIRI fire detection (04/Aug/03) Box Area ~ Fire Power SEVIRI 04/08/03 12: 00 upsampled

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Performance Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Performance Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Performance 158 Frame Processed = 898700 pixels 40 -60

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Performance 158 Frame Processed = 898700 pixels 40 -60 False Hits False Alarms: 6· 10 -5/pixel NOTE: - several false alarms associated to cloud boundaries (next) - a bunch of them due to SEVIRI saturation v Processing Time: 20 min whole Iberian Peninsula (on Athlon 1. 7 GHz) Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Long lasting hot spots v Detected on Aug 1

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Long lasting hot spots v Detected on Aug 1 st by SEVIRI v Size and Power variation (SEVIRI) generally smaller than corresponding MODIS/BIRD quantities Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Large, 1 day fire Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Large, 1 day fire Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th A different fire Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th A different fire Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Long lasting, moving fire v Fire moves from SW

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Long lasting, moving fire v Fire moves from SW to NE v MODIS/SEVIRI/BIRD geolocations do not fully agree Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Fire Parameters Distributions 04/Aug/2003 Fires Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Fire Parameters Distributions 04/Aug/2003 Fires Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th MIR Movie VIS 08 SWIR TIR 8. 7 TIR

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th MIR Movie VIS 08 SWIR TIR 8. 7 TIR 11 Earth Observation Dep. t NOTE: v several frames are mission v The detection is sensible to fire condition changes v Very High radiances in TIR have been not processed

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th MIR Noise from clouds VIS 08 SWIR TIR 8.

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th MIR Noise from clouds VIS 08 SWIR TIR 8. 7 TIR 11 Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th SEVIRI-MODIS Detection Efficiency Search MODIS images for fire outbreaks

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th SEVIRI-MODIS Detection Efficiency Search MODIS images for fire outbreaks between two consecutive acquisitions: TERRA 10: 45 AQUA 14: 00 v 24 fires identified (1 -5 Aug) v 17 Detected by SEVIRI (histogram) v SEVIRI/MODIS Efficiency ~ 70% § some SEVIRI frames are missing Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th User Needs and Detection Perf. Earth Observation Dep. t

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th User Needs and Detection Perf. Earth Observation Dep. t Up to 2 hour before MODIS Processor False Alarms: better than 10 -4/pixel HRV channel can be used to improve the location ~70% MODIS efficiency

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Conclusions Earth Observation Dep. t • First results of

EUMETSAT 2004, March 24 th Conclusions Earth Observation Dep. t • First results of the prototyped, fully automated, geostationary fire detection processor on SEVIRI commissioning data show: – comparable efficiency with MODIS (visual analysis) – reasonable false alarms rate – fire characterization capabilities • Margin of improvements (at least): – effective cloud masking (reduce false alarms) – better integration of the SWIR channel (replace MIR on saturated pixel) – moving toward a contextual analysis – validation on ground truth data (fire reports) Next generation of SEVIRI sensors may fulfill the tight user requirements