- Slides: 19
Eukaryotic Cells vs. Prokaryotic Cells
Cell Theory Cells are the basic units of living organisms. n The cell theory states that: n ¨ All living things are made of one or more cells. ¨ Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. ¨ All cells come from other cells.
Cell Types n Two categories: 1. Cell that have membrane-bound organelles ¨ Called Eukaryotic Cells 2. Cells that do not have membrane-bound organelles ¨ called prokaryotic cells n Unicellular organisms such as bacteria are examples of prokaryotes.
Cell Types n Eukaryotic cells¨ Cells that contain organelles which are held together by membranes ¨ Examples include plant and animal cells.
Eukaryotic Cell Structure n The plasma membrane/cell membrane ¨ the flexible boundary of a cell ¨ separates a cell from its surroundings
Plasma Membrane/Cell Membrane continued: n allows nutrients to enter the cell and waste to be removed ¨ This is referred to as selective permeability. *(Selective=Chooses, Permeability=filter through)* n keeping a healthy balance of nutrients and water within the cell is called homeostasis
Overview of Organelles n Nucleus¨ Largest organelle in the cell and it is the most inner compartment of the cell ¨ contains chromatin (DNA); genetic information on strands called chromosomes ¨ “control center” for cell metabolism and reproduction n n Chromatin- Directions on how to make proteins Nucleolus- Found inside nucleus; ribosomes are made here
Overview Cont’d n Ribosomes- make proteins (made up of RNA and protein); thought of as “factories” n Cytoplasm- clear gel like fluid inside the cell, which suspends all organelles n Endoplasmic Reticulum- extensive network of membranes ¨ Rough ER: with ribosomes ¨ Smooth ER: with no visible ribosomes n Golgi Apparatus- sorts proteins made by the ribosomes and sends them to needed places in the cell
n Lysosomes- organelles that are filled with digestive enzymes to remove waste and invading bacteria n Mitochondria- often referred to as the “powerhouse” of the cell release energy for the cell ¨ It converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP for the cell ¨ n Vacuoles- fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane ¨ Store materials such as food, sugar, water, and waste products
Eukaryotic plant cell n Plant cells are also Eukaryotic cells, but plant cells contain some organelles that are not found in animal cells.
Plant Cell Organelles n Cell wall- rigid wall outside the plasma membrane. It provides the cell with extra support. n Chloroplasts- captures light and energy; and converts it into chemical energy. n Chlorophyll- green pigment found inside the chloroplast. n Plastids- organelles that store things such as food in the plant cell.
Poster project n Create a 3 part poster comparing and contrasting the structures/organelles of each cell (prokaryotic, animal and plant) n Identify the shape of each cell n Identify the structure and function of each organelle in the eukaryotic cells n Point out differences between organelles in the plant and animal cell
Poster example 1:
Poster example 2:
Bacterial cell Animal cell Plant cell