- Slides: 16
Essay Writing Expository Writing: Opinion Essay
Expository Essay Writing • Every good writer has a purpose when he/she sits down to write. o The purpose may be to inform, to create a mood or stir an emotion, to tell about a series of events, or to persuade the reader to believe or do something. • In expository writing, the main purpose is to inform, define, or clarify an idea. • Simply put, expository writing informs, explains why, or tells how—In this case, you will explain your opinion.
5 Part Essay Plan—Expository Writing Introduction: • 1. Attention getter • 2. Provide context/background information • 3. Thesis statement * Clearly designates topic * States opinion/attitude toward topic * Previews main points of support Body: • 1. Body is organized into the 3 main points from your thesis statement • 2. Each main point needs to be supported with evidence (e. g. details, facts, examples, personal experiences, or quotes) and an explanation that tells how/why it supports your point. Conclusion: Flip of the introduction! • 1. Review main points • 2. Restate Thesis • 3. Clincher (memorable last line) and return to attention getter Thesis
Introduction Important Note: NEVER begin an essay with “In this essay…”! 1. Grab the reader’s attention • (See list of attention-getter leads) 2. Provide necessary context/background information on topic • • Why is this topic important to you as the writer? Why should we (readers) care about this topic? 3. Thesis statement • NEVER begin a thesis statement with “My thesis is…” or “In my essay/paper, I will talk about…”
Thesis Statement * The thesis statement gives the main idea or focus of an essay. • Often is the LAST sentence in the FIRST paragraph of your essay. • Establishes your opinion/attitude about the topic and previews the 3 main points of support. • These 3 main points will be developed into paragraphs for the body of your essay.
Introduction—Points to Remember/Questions to Ask Yourself • Is the length appropriate (less than 10% of the overall text)? • Does it arouse interest without being “cute” or “cheesy? ” • Does it transition smoothly into your thesis statement (main idea)? • Are the major supporting ideas mentioned/suggested in thesis statement? • Are specific facts kept to a minimum (didn’t overload with statistics)? • Is the style/tone of the introduction clear, concise, and pleasant/interesting to read? • Is the introduction flawless and free of errors?
Example of an Introduction: Nutty Bars, Cosmic Brownies, Swiss Cake Rolls and Zebra Cakes. Rows and rows of brightly packaged cookies, cakes, and crackers insure there is a treat to tempt every taste. Unfortunately, this display is not located in the snack aisle of the grocery store. It’s the snack line at your local school and the line for these sugary delights surpasses the regular lunch line. It’s clear that providing students access to unhealthy snacks during lunch time is a mistake because it sends the wrong message, it has a harmful impact on student health, and it negatively affects student concentration and learning. ----Attention Getter ----Context and background information ----Thesis statement and preview of main points
Body of the Essay 1. The body is organized into 3 paragraphs— 1 for each of the main points previewed in your thesis statement. 2. Each body paragraph begins with a topic sentence that introduces the main point of the paragraph (like a minithesis). 3. Each main point needs to be supported with evidence (e. g. details, facts, personal experiences, examples, or quotations) & an explanation to make your point clear and convincing. • Explaining Evidence = Act like a lawyer 4. Each paragraph needs to begin with a transition to signal movement from main point to the next. ***Transition example*** = “not only…but also…”
Transition Words and Phrases Use these transitions to help you connect the ideas between your sentences and between your paragraphs. TO INTRODUCE EXAMPLES for example in fact in one instance for instance in one case as proof to illustrate to begin with in one example TO ADD ANOTHER POINT also in addition (to) furthermoreover another a second (third, fourth, etc. ) besides a further TO SHOW TIME RELATIONSHIPS before since in the meantime after meanwhile to begin with next eventually at the same time then at last not long after finally afterward as time passed TO SIGNAL RESULTS OR EFFECTS as a result because (of) for this reason due to therefore in response to thus consequently in conclusion TO SHOW COMPARISON OR CONTRAST similarly in contrast different from like unlike on the other hand just as the same ason the contrary as well (as) equally important TO CONNECT IDEAS yet however nevertheless so though moreover
Example of Body Paragraph: First, having unhealthy snacks available at ----Topic Sentence of first lunch time sends the wrong message. Students learn about good nutrition in health class. They are taught to check the labels for sugar, fat, and high calorie content so that they don't make unwise snacking choices. Yet, treats that contain high quantities of these substances are available every day during lunch in the school cafeteria. Like me, many students have a "sweet tooth" and love to eat sugary snacks. Most people will eat unhealthy snacks if they are easily available, and they are readily available in our lunchroom. The lunchroom should provide students with a strong model of healthy, balanced meals to reinforce the healthy habits promoted in class. This tells students that what they learn in health class is not only accurate, but important enough to be taken seriously. Instead, the availability of unhealthy snacks gives students the mixed message of "Do as I say, not as I do. " This sends students the wrong message. main point ---- Support for point= Evidence + Explanation (e. g. details, facts, personal experiences, examples, or quotes that make your point clear and convincing) ----Transition to signal movement from the Not only does having unhealthy snacks send the wrong message, it also has a harmful previous main point to impact on students’ health. the next main point
Conclusion Important Note: NEVER end an essay with “I hope you enjoyed my essay, ” “That’s it, ” or “The end. ” * The conclusion is a flip of the introduction! 1. Review your main points 2. Restate your thesis statement 3. Clincher (memorable last line) or return to attention grabber • Do NOT directly copy your original attention getter— refer back to it or its information.
Conclusion: Restatement of Thesis • Thesis needs to be reworded in a different manner than before—Extremely Important!!! * Do NOT simply copy and paste your original thesis statement! * Reword your thesis points by re-mentioning important details from the body paragraphs—will provide length and additional detail that wasn’t available in the original thesis statement. * Your restatement can be longer than the original thesis statement—break the restatement up into several different sentences (it can even be 1 sentence per point).
Conclusion—Points to Remember • Remember, the conclusion is your final impression & the portion of the piece of writing your audience generally remembers best!!! End strongly!!! • Consciously echo the style, tone, themes, word choice, etc. of your introduction (this will tie your paper together). • Restate thesis using slightly different words and briefly recap the main points of the body. • Avoid distractions (such as previously unmentioned arguments). • End in a memorable way, but avoid sounding grandiose. Be sure to leave the reader with something to reflect upon (“food for thought”). • Make sure to proofread since the conclusion is your final impression upon the reader.
Example of Conclusion: It is obvious that offering unhealthy snacks in the school cafeteria has several negative effects such as providing a poor message and model to students. Secondly, unhealthy foods harm students’ physical health. Finally, they even decrease the students’ ability to pay attention and learn. For these reasons, it is clear that unhealthy snack foods should be prohibited from the school cafeteria. There may be a sweet treat to tempt every teens’ sweet tooth, but the school should not be the supplier. Schools are responsible for the students’ education and well-being throughout the school day, including time spent in the cafeteria at lunchtime. ----Review of main points (same ideas in slightly different words) ----Restate thesis statement ----Tie back to attention getter and end with clincher
Writing/Revision Tips Style • Don’t refer to yourself in the essay unless you are giving a personal example. o Don’t use “I think, ” “I feel, ” or “I believe, ” just make your point. It’s obvious that you believe what you say. After all, it’s your essay. o It is acceptable to use “I” when giving a personal example. § Example = “For example, last week when I was having lunch, everyone else at my table had at least one unhealthy snack on his/her tray, including cookies, french fries, and chips. ” • Keep your writing in present verb tense. o It seems more “alive” if you do. o Example = “Many students do not eat nutritious meals outside of school. ” OR “Currently, at Irving Middle School, we only have 4 minutes between courses to get from one classroom to our next classroom.
Peer Revision Guidelines What we need to know in order to peer revise? What does peer revision mean? Peer revision is when students give each other helpful, constructive feedback on writing. Effective feedback is based upon the question, “How will my response help the writer? ” When someone reads my paper, I want them to: 1. Be specific about the content and ideas in the paper 2. Point out parts that are strong and parts that need improvement 3. Be honest When I read someone’s paper, I want to: 1. Read the entire paper 2. Compare it with the grading rubric and model 3. Offer constructive, helpful criticism