ESRC Sponsored Seminar on Business Models Henley Business

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ESRC Sponsored Seminar on Business Models Henley Business School, Henley-on-Thames, 22 July 2014 Digital

ESRC Sponsored Seminar on Business Models Henley Business School, Henley-on-Thames, 22 July 2014 Digital Transformation of Business Models in the Creative Industries: The Emergence of the Portfolio Model* Professor Feng Li, Ph. D Chair of Information Management Cass Business School, London Feng. li. [email protected] ac. uk © Feng Li, 2014 * This paper has been accepted for The 74 th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management (Ao. M) August 1 -5, 2014 - Philadelphia, PA, USA 1

Introduction • • Why the creative industries The empirical research A holistic business model

Introduction • • Why the creative industries The empirical research A holistic business model framework Emerging trends The portfolio model Future research Questions © Feng Li, 2014 2

What are the creative industries? ‘What began as an opportunistic yoking together of art

What are the creative industries? ‘What began as an opportunistic yoking together of art and industry in cultural policy for purposes of advocacy and investment has now been enthusiastically adopted by politicians, analysts and educators around the world as an umbrella term covering all or some of the arts, media and entertainment industries and associated branches of the knowledge economy. ’ (Bilton, 2007: xvi). © Feng Li, 2014 3

The creative industries • An umbrella term for those industries ‘based on individual creativity,

The creative industries • An umbrella term for those industries ‘based on individual creativity, skill and talent and have the potential to create wealth and jobs through developing intellectual property’ • 13 sub-sectors explicitly identified • A significant and rapidly growing segment of the economy © Feng Li, 2014 4

Sectors of the creative industries 1 Advertising 8 Film and video 2 Architecture 9

Sectors of the creative industries 1 Advertising 8 Film and video 2 Architecture 9 Music 3 Art & antiques markets 10 Performing arts 4 Computer & video games 11 Publishing 5 Crafts 12 Software 6 Design 13 Television and radio 7 Designer fashion 14 Others Source: UK Department of Culture, Media and Sports (DCMS) © Feng Li, 2014 5

Why creative industries? • An ideal domain for systematic examination of the digital transformation

Why creative industries? • An ideal domain for systematic examination of the digital transformation of business models • Full range of organisations - from large multinationals to micro-businesses • Full range of activities – – digital native sectors (such as digital games) where many new business models are developed and adopted – traditional sectors that have been significantly affected by digital technologies (e. g. Publishing , design and music) – areas where the full impacts of digital technologies are still to emerge (e. g. fine art) © Feng Li, 2014 6

This research • Systematic literature review • Two strands of empirical research • Primarily

This research • Systematic literature review • Two strands of empirical research • Primarily qualitative to identify emerging trends © Feng Li, 2014 7

A holistic analytical framework of business models © Feng Li, 2014 8

A holistic analytical framework of business models © Feng Li, 2014 8

The case studies Total Number of Cases Advertising Architecture Art and antiques markets Computer

The case studies Total Number of Cases Advertising Architecture Art and antiques markets Computer and video games Crafts Designer fashion Film and video Music Performing arts Publishing Software Television and radio Others (e. g. Museums) Sizes (No. of Employees) <10 11 -50 51 -500 >501 Market Orientation UK European Global Mini Case Studies Main Case Studies 30 4 2 1 5 5 1 11 1 13 9 4 4 22 50 3 2 4 4 3 5 2 3 9 4 3 3 23 12 6 9 28 12 10 © Feng Li, 2014 9

How digital technologies changed business models? 30 Mini Case Studies 50 Main Case Studies

How digital technologies changed business models? 30 Mini Case Studies 50 Main Case Studies Enhance Extend Transform Product offering 3 (10%) 14 (47%) 13 (43%) 32 (64%) 17 (34%) 1 (2%) Market segment 2 (7%) 12 (40%) 16 (53%) 32 (64%) 18 (36%) 0 (0%) Revenue model 5 (17%) 7 (23%) 18 (60%) 37 (74%) 10 (20%) 3 (6%) Value sensing 1 (3%) 3 (10%) 26 (87%) 24 (48%) 20 (40%) 6 (12%) Value creation 5 (17%) 15 (50%) 10 (33%) 40 (80%) 9 (18%) 1 (2%) Value distribution 1 (3%) 9 (30%) 20 (67%) 26 (52%) 20 (40%) 4 (8%) Value capture 1 (3%) 5 (17%) 24 (80%) 32 (64%) 12 (24%) 6 (12%) Product innovation 2 (7%) 10 (33%) 18 (60%) 34 (68%) 12 (24%) 4 (8%) Infrastructure mgt 2 (7%) 16 (53%) 12 (40%) 30 (60%) 19 (38%) 1 (2%) CRM 1 (3%) 2 (7%) 27 (90%) 25 (50%) 20 (40%) 5 (10%) Value proposition Value Architecture Functional Architecture © Feng Li, 2014 10

Emerging trends • • • Exclusivity through personalisation Association and brand extension Pay as

Emerging trends • • • Exclusivity through personalisation Association and brand extension Pay as much as you like and dynamic pricing ‘Wisdom of the crowd’ Significant changes in - – Revenue models in value propositions – Value sensing and value capture in value architecture – Customer relationships management in activity architecture © Feng Li, 2014 11

Three levels of changes • Digital information and interaction • Digital extension of traditional

Three levels of changes • Digital information and interaction • Digital extension of traditional business models • Digital transformation of traditional business models • Limited evidence on the emergence of unprecedented, genuinely novel business models © Feng Li, 2014 12

Digital transformation of business models • Identify new or radically reconfigured business models enabled

Digital transformation of business models • Identify new or radically reconfigured business models enabled by digital technologies • But digital technologies primarily used to reconfigure key components of traditional business models, or deploy other types of business models to supplement or replace traditional business models • Reconfigured or ‘other’ business models are often not new or novel - clear antecedents can be found elsewhere. • The digital transformation of business models is not necessarily about creating radically novel or new business models that did not exist before, but in allowing organisations to deploy a wider range of business models than previously available to them © Feng Li, 2014 13

The emergence of the portfolio model: Three variants • The market portfolio model -

The emergence of the portfolio model: Three variants • The market portfolio model - deploy two or more business models to tackle different markets or market niches • The product portfolio model - new niche products from different stages of work in progress • Multi-sided business model - interactions with multiple stakeholders upstream, downstream and horizontally in a complex value network or ecosystem © Feng Li, 2014 14

Different levels of integration • A loose collection of discrete business models • The

Different levels of integration • A loose collection of discrete business models • The hybrid models where some key components are shared • Full integration of multiple business models as new business model © Feng Li, 2014 15

Financial sustainability & stakeholder credibility • Maximising revenues from different markets or market niches,

Financial sustainability & stakeholder credibility • Maximising revenues from different markets or market niches, different stages of work in progress, or multiple sides of the market - reduces risks and increases resilience • Previously insignificant markets or market niches grow in business volume and the traditional main market declines, the nature of the business is transformed • Increase stakeholder credibility © Feng Li, 2014 16

Conclusions • Pervasive change of business models in the creative industries • All layers

Conclusions • Pervasive change of business models in the creative industries • All layers and all components of value proposition, value architecture and activity architecture • Different types of organisations in all sectors of creative industries in • Significantly affect financial sustainability and stakeholder credibility © Feng Li, 2014 17

Conclusions …. cont • Not about creating radically new or novel business models that

Conclusions …. cont • Not about creating radically new or novel business models that did not exist before • Enable the deployment of a wider range of business models than previously available • Traditional business models adapted and applied to different ranges of products online • Increasing adoption of the portfolio model across different sectors © Feng Li, 2014 18

Future research • Define conditions when particular business models can be deployed - long

Future research • Define conditions when particular business models can be deployed - long term financial sustainability and stakeholder credibility • Methodological challenge - very early stage of development with limited empirical presence • Policy interventions and incentives © Feng Li, 2014 19

Thank you! Any Questions? Feng. li. 1@city. ac. uk Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the financial

Thank you! Any Questions? Feng. li. [email protected] ac. uk Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the financial support by the Economic and Social Research Council [ESRC Grant number RES-185 -31 -0017: Identify and Promote Sustainable Business Models in the Creative Industries]; and The Research Councils UK Digital Economy Programme [grant number EP/G 066019/1 - Social Inclusion through the Digital Economy]. © Feng Li, 2014 20