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ESL 501: Created By Betsy Divine* QUOTES AND PARAPHRASING *Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum, 6 th Edition By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen New York: Harper. Collins, 1997. Pp. 32 -58.
Discuss in Groups and Share: � 1) What type of materials should be referenced in graduate academic papers? What type should not be referenced? � 2) When is it most appropriate to “quote” the source? � 3) When is it most appropriate to paraphrase or summarize the source? � How important is it in your field to give credit to the original source? How do you give credit?
Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing: What’s the Difference? � A quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing. A summary, in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. � Remember that the papers you write should be your own ideas, conclusions, and analysis of other’s work. Thus, references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation.
Quote When… 1) another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. 2) another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. 3) you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing.
1) Quoting Memorable Language Original Source: The results of giving an F where it is deserved would be immediately evident. There would be no illiterate college graduates next spring. Quoting Memorable Language: Singleton (2008) claims that a higher distribution of “deserved F’s” in schools would produce instant positive results (p 6).
1) Quoting Memorable Language cont… Original Source: The single most important requirement for solving the problems of education in America today is the big fat F. Quoting Memorable Language: Singleton's (2008) assertion that “the big fat F” will provide a quick fix for the American education system is a drastic oversimplification of a complex problem (para 3).
2) Quoting Clear and Concise Language Original Source � Giving an F whenever and wherever it is the only appropriate grade, would force principals, school boards, and voters to come to terms with cost as a factor in improving our educational system Quoted Source: Singleton (2008) goes on to maintain that his theory would improve education through requiring “principals, school boards, and voters to come to terms with cost as a factor” (p 7).
3) Quoting Authoritarian Language � In a report conducted by the Ford Foundation, Hunter and David (2005) suggest that a “multi-dimensional national educational policy with long term strategic goals” is the best way to achieving true and meaningful educational change (p 23).
Avoiding Quote Bombs � A quoted sentence should never stand by itself! Let’s look at the following sentence: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. " But this kind of thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes.
Quote Bombs Continued… � Even though the quote included a parenthetical citation after the quotation, it was not integrated well into the text creating a jarring effect on the reader. To avoid this, introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. � � Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit
Quote Bombs Continued… Another variation: "These gentry, " asserts Robert Hutchins, "often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. " Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: Robert Hutchins disagrees: "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. " � When attributing sources, try to vary the standard "states, " "writes, " "says, " and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: "asserts, " "argues, " "maintains, " "insists, " "asks, " and even "wonders. "
Remember: Paraphrasing is often the best choice! Original Source: However, Johnny does not deserve to pass just because Daddy doesn't care or is ignorant. Johnny should pass only when and if he knows the required material. Quoting Authorative Language: Singleton (2008) maintains that parental apathy and negligence are not sufficient reasons to pass a student.
Using Ellipsis Marks � If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: � "To read well. . . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. “ � If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: � "It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. . Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. “ � If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: � Reading "is a noble exercise, " writes Henry David Thoreau.
Using Brackets In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to. You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that "[Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. “ � If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella "is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. " � If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, "After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. " �
Paraphrase and Quoting Practice � In the following slides I will present sample sentences from the first article that we are going to read for the summary critique assignment. � You will be given a minute or two to understand the concept and then I will remove the text. You will then paraphrase or quote the content to share with classmates � The purpose of this activity is to practice paraphrasing as well as introduce us to the new article.
Sample Text Source in APA � In-text Citation Examples: Kaminski et al. (2004)…”. . ”… (para 1). …” (Kaminski et al, 2004, para 1) � Title of article, “Word Learning in a Domestic Dog: Evidence for "Fast Mapping”
Sample Text #1 � From about 2 years of age, typical English-speaking children incorporate about 10 new words per day into their vocabulary until they reach an average vocabulary size of 60, 000 words by the time they graduate from high school.
Sample Text #2 � During speech acquisition, children form quick and rough hypotheses about the meaning of a new word after only a single exposure — a process dubbed "fast mapping. "
Sample Text #3 � The study animal, Rico, is a border collie and was born in December 1994. He lives as a pet with his owners and was reported by them to know the labels of over 200 items, mostly children's toys and balls, which he correctly retrieved upon request.
Sample Text #4 � Whether Rico's ability to form a link between a label and an object is homologous to children's knowledge about the names of things remains a matter for further investigation.