Erikson Marcia Kohlberg Nov 10 2009 Erikson Erikson

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Erikson, Marcia, Kohlberg Nov. 10, 2009

Erikson, Marcia, Kohlberg Nov. 10, 2009

Erikson

Erikson

Erikson • Ego is most important • Part of the ego operates independently of

Erikson • Ego is most important • Part of the ego operates independently of the id and the superego. • The ego is a powerful agent. It can adapt to situations, and therefore promotes mental health. • He broadens the scope of personality and included both social and sexual factors. • His theory included normality as well as abnormality. • He did no statistical research. • It is very hard to test his theory.

Erikson http: //psychology. about. com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psychosocial. htm • • Psychosocial Stage 1 – Infancy (birth-18

Erikson http: //psychology. about. com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psychosocial. htm • • Psychosocial Stage 1 – Infancy (birth-18 months) Basic conflict--Trust vs. Mistrust Important event: Feeding – The first stage – occurs between birth and one year of age and – is the most fundamental stage in life. – infant is utterly dependent, – the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. – It is the first task of ego (trust). Never completes. – If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. – Then will let mother out of sight without anxiety and rage. Inner and outer predictability. – Caregivers--inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children. – Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable

 • • Psychosocial Stage 2 – Early Childhood (2 -3 years) Basic conflict:

• • Psychosocial Stage 2 – Early Childhood (2 -3 years) Basic conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Important event: Toilet training – The second stage takes place during early childhood and – is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. – Erikson, too, believed that toilet training was a very important part of this process. – However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. – Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. – Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. – Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy, shame and self-doubt.

 • • Psychosocial Stage 3 – Preschool--3 -5 years Basic conflict: Initiative vs.

• • Psychosocial Stage 3 – Preschool--3 -5 years Basic conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt Important event: exploration – During the preschool years, – children begin to show their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. – Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. – Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. – Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. – Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative.

 • • Psychosocial Stage 4 – School age - 6 -11 years Basic

• • Psychosocial Stage 4 – School age - 6 -11 years Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority’ Important event: school – This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. – Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. – Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. – Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.

 • • Psychosocial Stage 5 – Adolescence (12 -18 years) Basic conflict: Identity

• • Psychosocial Stage 5 – Adolescence (12 -18 years) Basic conflict: Identity vs. Confusion Main event: social relationships – During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. – Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. – Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future.

 • • Psychosocial Stage 6 – Young Adulthood (19 -40 years) Basic Conflict:

• • Psychosocial Stage 6 – Young Adulthood (19 -40 years) Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation Main event: relationships – This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. – Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. – Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure. – each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. – Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships. – Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression.

 • • Psychosocial Stage 7 – Middle adulthood (40 -65 years) Basic conflict:

• • Psychosocial Stage 7 – Middle adulthood (40 -65 years) Basic conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation Main event: Work and Parenthood – During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family. – Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. – Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.

 • • Psychosocial Stage 8 – Maturity –(65 -to death) Basic conflict: Integrity

• • Psychosocial Stage 8 – Maturity –(65 -to death) Basic conflict: Integrity vs. Despair Main event: reflection on life – This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. – Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. – The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. – Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. – Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. – These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.

Erikson-adolescents (stage 5) • Identity vs. role confusion • Cognitive processes are expanding •

Erikson-adolescents (stage 5) • Identity vs. role confusion • Cognitive processes are expanding • Abstract thinking, capacity to understand the perspective of others • Constructing an identity will provide a form basis for adulthood • Developing a sense of “who am I? ”

Identity vs role confusion • Identity: organization of the individual’s drives, abilities, beliefs, consistent

Identity vs role confusion • Identity: organization of the individual’s drives, abilities, beliefs, consistent image of “self” • deliberate choices, decisions about work, life, values, ideology, commitments • role confusion: If an adolescent fails to integrate all of these components, or they are unable to make choices

Erikson-moratorium • Moratorium: delay in commitment to personal and occupational choices

Erikson-moratorium • Moratorium: delay in commitment to personal and occupational choices

James Marcia • Four identity status: – it is not identity or confusion, –

James Marcia • Four identity status: – it is not identity or confusion, – but rather to what degree one has explored and committed to an identity in a a variety of life domain (eg. , vocation, religion, relational choices, gender roles, etc. ) – Two distinct parts • Crisis (values and choices are reevaluated) • Commitment (end of crisis)

 • Not stages, • Not a sequential process • one’s sense of identity

• Not stages, • Not a sequential process • one’s sense of identity is determined by the choices and commitments made regarding certain personal and social traits. • how much one has made certain choices, and how much he or she displays a commitment to those choices. • Identity involves – 1) a sexual orientation, – 2) a set of values and ideals and – 3) a vocational direction. • A well-developed identity is able to define one’s strengths, weaknesses, and individual uniqueness. • A less well-developed identity is not able to define his or her personal strengths and weaknesses

How theory was developed? • interviews with young people. • the participants in his

How theory was developed? • interviews with young people. • the participants in his study were asked whether they – (1) had made a commitment to an occupation and ideology and – (2) had experienced/experiencing, a decision making period (identity crisis).

James Marcia Identity Diffusion – -the adolescent has no have a sense of having

James Marcia Identity Diffusion – -the adolescent has no have a sense of having choices; -no commitment has been made, nor he/she has not yet made

 • Identity Foreclosure – – adolescent seems willing to commit to some relevant

• Identity Foreclosure – – adolescent seems willing to commit to some relevant roles, values, or goals for the future. – have not experienced an identity crisis. – tend to obey to the expectations of others regarding their future (e. g. allowing a parent to determine a career direction) – have not explored a range of options

 Identity Moratorium – -adolescent is currently in a crisis, -explores various commitments -is

Identity Moratorium – -adolescent is currently in a crisis, -explores various commitments -is ready to make choices, -but has not made a commitment to these choices yet.

 Identity Achievement – -adolescent has gone through a identity crisis -has made a

Identity Achievement – -adolescent has gone through a identity crisis -has made a commitment to a sense of identity (i. e. certain role or value) that he or she has chosen

High commitment Low commitment High exploration achievement moratorium Low exploration foreclosure diffusion

High commitment Low commitment High exploration achievement moratorium Low exploration foreclosure diffusion

Bronfenbrenner

Bronfenbrenner

Bronfenbrenner http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_Systems_Theory • Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory looks at a child’s development

Bronfenbrenner http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_Systems_Theory • Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory looks at a child’s development within the system of relationships, which forms his/her environment. • His theory identifies five environmental systems. • The five environmental systems are: • • • microsystem, mesosytem, exosystem, macrosystem, Chronosystem • There are complex “layers” of environment. Each layer will have an effect on child’s development.

 • "Microsystem: – The setting in which the individual lives. – These contexts

• "Microsystem: – The setting in which the individual lives. – These contexts include the person's family, peers, school, and neighborhood. – It is in the microsystem that the most direct interactions with social agents take place; with parents, peers, and teachers, for example. – The individual is not a passive recipient of experiences in these settings, but someone who helps to construct the settings.

 • Mesosystem: – Refers to relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. –

• Mesosystem: – Refers to relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. – Examples are the relation of family experiences to school experiences, school experiences to church experiences, and family experiences to peer experiences. – For example, children whose parents have rejected them may have difficulty developing positive relations with teachers.

 • Exosystem: – Involves links between a social setting in which the individual

• Exosystem: – Involves links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context. – For example, a husband's or child's experience at home may be influenced by a mother's experiences at work. – The mother might receive a promotion that requires more travel, which might increase conflict with the husband change patterns of interaction with the child.

 • Chronosystem: – The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life

• Chronosystem: – The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as socio-historical circumstances. – For example, divorces is one transition. Researchers have found that the negative effects of divorce on children often peak in the first year after the divorce. – By two years after the divorce, family interaction is less chaotic and more stable.

Chronosystem (cont’d) – As an example of socio-historical circumstances, consider how the opportunities for

Chronosystem (cont’d) – As an example of socio-historical circumstances, consider how the opportunities for women to pursue a career have increased during the last thirty years. " – There are many different theories to human development. – The ecological theory emphasizes environmental factors as playing the major role to development. – This theory does in fact vary from culture to culture

 • Macrosystem: – Describes the culture in which individuals live. – Cultural contexts

• Macrosystem: – Describes the culture in which individuals live. – Cultural contexts include developing and industrialized countries, socioeconomic status, poverty, and ethnicity.

Kohlberg (moral development) • Level 1. Preconventional Morality – Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment

Kohlberg (moral development) • Level 1. Preconventional Morality – Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation – Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange • Level II. Conventional Morality – Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships – Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order • Level III. Postconventional Morality – Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights – Stage 6: Universal Principles

Kohlberg's Dilemma http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kohlberg's_stages_of_moral_development#Examples_of_applied_moral_dilemmas • • • A woman was near death

Kohlberg's Dilemma http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kohlberg's_stages_of_moral_development#Examples_of_applied_moral_dilemmas • • • A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2, 000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1, 000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it. " So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have broken into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not?

http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kohlberg's_stages_of_moral_development#Examples_of_applied_moral_dilemmas • Stage one (obedience): – Heinz should not steal the

http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kohlberg's_stages_of_moral_development#Examples_of_applied_moral_dilemmas • Stage one (obedience): – Heinz should not steal the medicine because he will consequently be put in prison which will mean he is a bad person. – Or: Heinz should steal the medicine because it is only worth $200 and not how much the druggist wanted for it; Heinz had even offered to pay for it and was not stealing anything else.

 • Stage two (self-interest): – Heinz should steal the medicine because he will

• Stage two (self-interest): – Heinz should steal the medicine because he will be much happier if he saves his wife, even if he will have to serve a prison sentence. – Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because prison is an awful place, and he would probably languish over a jail cell more than his wife's death.

 • Stage three (conformity): – Heinz should steal the medicine because his wife

• Stage three (conformity): – Heinz should steal the medicine because his wife expects it; he wants to be a good husband. – Or: Heinz should not steal the drug because stealing is bad and he is not a criminal; – he tried to do everything he could without breaking the law, you cannot blame him.

 • Stage four (law-and-order): – Heinz should not steal the medicine because the

• Stage four (law-and-order): – Heinz should not steal the medicine because the law prohibits stealing, making it illegal. – Or: Heinz should steal the drug for his wife but also take the prescribed punishment for the crime as well as paying the druggist what he is owed. – Criminals cannot just run around without regard for the law; actions have consequences.

 • Stage five (human rights): – Heinz should steal the medicine because everyone

• Stage five (human rights): – Heinz should steal the medicine because everyone has a right to choose life, regardless of the law. – Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because the scientist has a right to fair compensation. Even if his wife is sick, it does not make his actions right.

 • Stage six (universal human ethics): – Heinz should steal the medicine, because

• Stage six (universal human ethics): – Heinz should steal the medicine, because saving a human life is a more fundamental value than the property rights of another person. – Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine, because others may need the medicine just as badly, and their lives are equally significant.

Peer Aggression • Hostile aggression: intentional harm • Over aggression: threats, physical attacks (bullies)

Peer Aggression • Hostile aggression: intentional harm • Over aggression: threats, physical attacks (bullies) • Relational aggression: social relations

Self-concept & Self-esteem • Self-concept: knowledge and beliefs about themselves • Self-esteem: evaluative judgment

Self-concept & Self-esteem • Self-concept: knowledge and beliefs about themselves • Self-esteem: evaluative judgment of self worth