- Slides: 108
ERA 1 Content Beginning – 600 BCE
How did farmers impact the environment?
• • Cultivating certain plants Excluding certain plants for cultivation Building irrigation systems Use of domesticated animals for food & labor
Name the core foundational civilizations and give their location.
• • • Mesopotamia = Tigris & Euphrates river valleys Egypt = Nile River Valley Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa = Indus River Valley Shang = Yellow River Valley (Huang He) Olmec = Mesoamerica Chavin = Andean South America
Why have pastoralists been known as technological disseminators (spreaders)?
Their mobility (caused by having to move around with their animals) brought them into contact with multiple settled populations.
What new weapons and modes of transportation did pastoralists disseminate?
• • Chariots Horseback riding Iron weapons Composite bows
Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade and transportation. Name two examples that came before 600 BCE.
• The wheel (transportation: chariots and carts) • Pottery (storage of food = greater population = specialization of labor=…)
What characteristics do all civilizations share?
• Agricultural surpluses = specialization of labor • Cities • Complex institutions: Political bureaucracies, Armies, Religious hierarchies • Clearly stratified societies • Organized long-distance trade
What are some examples of monumental architecture and urban planning?
• • • Pyramids Ziggurats Defensive walls
What are two early examples of record keeping?
• • Cuneiform (form Mesopotamia) Hieroglyphs (from Egypt)
Name an example of a legal code that reflected existing social hierarchies?
Code of Hammurabi
What religious beliefs (besides Polytheism) developed that would have lasting impact in future eras?
• • • Judaism Zoroastrianism Vedic religions (later becomes Hinduism)
What are some examples of interregional trade? (that means trade between different regions)
• • Egypt & Mesopotamia Egypt & Nubia Mesopotamia & Indus River Valley China & Southwest Asia
ERA 1 by SPICE Theme Beginning – 600 BCE
In what ways did the agricultural (Neolithic) revolution change social structures?
• • Irrigation required organization of labor and resources. This created a need for leadership. Agriculture = surplus of food = specialization of labor = social classes Agriculture required heavy labor (ex: plowing) = men seen as more necessary to sustain society Agriculture meant that land was now valuable, which in turn meant that those who owned land were wealthy = Rise of hereditary elites.
What were the main functions of the first states?
• • Manage irrigation canals Establish order (rule of law) Protection Facilitate trade
What relationships existed between states and pastoral societies?
• Pastoralists traded between states • States provided plant-based agricultural products to pastoralists • Pastoralists sometimes attacked states to gain their resources. • Pastoralists served as disseminators of culture, goods, technology and diseases.
Interaction with Environmen
What are some tools and technologies that early humans used to establish communities?
• Pottery allowed storage of food, which allowed for a surplus of food. • Plows allowed for the intensification of agriculture. More food = greater population & greater surplus.
How did the following groups adapt differently to their environments? • Hunter-gatherers • Pastoralists • Agricultural societies
• • • Hunter-gatherers: Used resources, then moved on to new lands. Dependent on the seasons and migration of animals that they hunted. Pastoralists: Lived in grasslands that were not suitable for raising crops. Instead, they raised animals. Had to move often to find new pasture land. Agricultural societies: Lived in areas that could support crop-based agriculture, usually near a river. They built permanent dwellings.
How did human migrations affected the environment in Era 1?
• Migrations of almost every type led to the dissemination of crops and animals. • Agricultural societies permanently altered the landscape of the lands they settled in. • Pastoralists could cause overgrazing if they kept their herds in an area too long. This could cause erosion.
Describe major belief systems from Era 1.
Judaism: A monotheistic religion of the Jews. Had a codified law. Holy book was the Torah. Vedic religion: This was the precursor to Hinduism. Brahmins were the top class in society. Performed sacrifices and rituals. Zoroastrianism: Persian monotheistic religion. Saw life as a struggle between good and evil.
What are some examples of cross-cultural interactions resulting in the diffusion of technologies from Era 1?
• Hyksos conquer Egypt: spread ideas of chariots and compound bows. • Bantu migrate throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Spread crops and knowledge of iron weapons. • Interregional trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia, and Egypt and Sudan, spreads crops.
What purpose did monumental architecture serve for rulers?
Monumental architecture (such as the Pyramids or Hanging Gardens of Babylon) served to show off the greatness of rulers and legitimize their authority.
Are there any examples of a relationship between belief systems and economic systems?
Belief systems tended to support existing social structures, and the wealthy were usually at the top of society.
Did systems of record keeping influence economic exchanges (buying/selling/trade)?
Yes (or this question wouldn’t be on this review). How? Systems of writing, such as Cuneiform or Hieroglyphs, allowed for people to keep records of payment and credit, which allowed for more economic exchanges (regional and interregional), and for more effective taxation.
ERA 2 Content 600 BCE – 600 CE
What conquests contributed to the growth of Jewish diasporic communities throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East?
• • • Assyrian Babylonian Roman
How did Hinduism affect the Indian social structure?
Contributed to the development of the social and political roles of the caste system.
Buddhism received state support from Ashoka, an emperor of the Mauryan Empire. How else did Buddhism spread, including to lands beyond India?
Missionaries & Merchants (same way that Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire)
Name a Chinese ruler that strongly supported Confucianism.
Wudi (he initiated the civil service exams)
Early Christianity was persecuted by the Roman Empire. Who ended this?
Emperor Constantine, when he converted
What forms of local religions continued/were incorporated in the major religions?
Shamanism Animism Ancestor Veneration
What are some of the major differences between the Era 1 empires and the Era 2 empires?
In Era 2: • There were more states • The states were larger • The states were more organized poltically: centralized gov’ts, bureaucracies, legal systems • Greater military power
Name some groups that were common in Era 2 social hierarchies.
• • Cultivators (farmers) Laborers Slaves Artisans Merchants Elites India’s caste groups
What are some examples of problems that Era 2 empires faced, including the Roman Empire, Han China, Mauryan & Gupta India?
• Invasions at borders (Germanic tribes, Huns, Xiongnu) • Economic difficulties and social tensions • Erosion of political institutions/political instability • Overuse of resources
What were the major interregional trade routes in Era 2?
• • Trans-Saharan Silk Roads Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean • Local trade developed in the Americas and Oceania
What stimulated trade in the Indian Ocean?
• New maritime (ocean voyaging) technologies: lateen sails • Knowledge of the monsoon winds
The spread of disease helped lead to the decline of some empires. Name two.
Roman & Han
What new crops from India stimulated changes in Middle Eastern agriculture?
New Crops: Rice & Cotton Changes: • Qanat system • Water wheels • Improved wells and pumps
ERA 2 by SPICE Theme 600 BCE – 600 CE
Though belief systems generally sustained social structures already in place, how did some new religions challenge them?
Challenges to Class: • • Buddhism challenged the caste system and authority of the Brahman caste Christianity appealed to lower classes, with the teaching of Jesus saying, “Blessed are the poor…” Both Christianity and Buddhism allowed for a monastic life, and both permitted women to be nuns (which provided an outlet of change for them). Christianity started as a Jewish sect, but grew into a world religion that incorporated Gentiles (non-Jews) as well.
What are some examples of belief systems sustaining them?
Sustaining Class: • • Confucianism’s belief in unequal relationships enforced a stratified social structure, as well as gender roles and patriarchy. Hinduism’s beliefs of karma and reincarnation reinforced the caste system.
What are some common social characteristics of imperial societies?
• Most had social hierarchies that included (from the top down): elites, merchants, artisans, laborers and cultivators, slaves • Labor systems: • Slavery (different in different places) • Corvee labor • Continuance of patriarchy
What are some developments that occured in imperial social structures between 600 BCE and 600 CE?
• Caste system continues in India (completely rigid: you will not change caste during your lifetime). • Chinese society provided a slight means of upward mobility for lower classes in the form of Civil Service Exams. Most peasant families couldn’t afford the cost of education, however. • Greek & Roman citizenship allowed for more participation from lower class males.
What functions did governments serve?
• Promoted trade • Kept the peace (internal revolts and external invasions) • Issued currency • Conducted diplomacy • Facilitated the growth of cities • Ensured the continuing production of food
What various relationships between belief systems and governments develop between 600 BCE and 600 CE?
• • Rulers continued to use religion and beliefs to legitimize their authority (Roman emperors worshiped as gods, Mayan kings were also high priests) Sometimes belief systems became the ruling philosophies of dynasties (Qin used legalism, Han used Confucianism) Some states promoted specific beliefs (Ashoka’s support of Buddhism, Constantine’s support of Christianity ) Some states resisted new religions (Rome’s persecution of Christianity (before Constantine)).
How has commerce influenced state building (the building or strengthening of a state)?
• Roads encourage trade, but also aid state building and imperial gov’ts in the following ways: quicker transportation of armies, quicker sending/receiving of messages, allowing supply lines to be established to distant fortresses, • Trade has led to the growth of cities as they became centers of trade. • Gov’ts have issued currency to provide economic unity
What are the various methods rulers have used to facilitate state and empire building?
• • • Build infrastructure (roads, walls, aqueducts) Facilitate/encourage trade Impose taxation to raise funds Build defenses Issue currency Use belief systems to legitimize their authority Use belief systems to maintain the social order Maintain food production Establish imperial bureaucracies Divide the empire into provinces
Interaction with Environment
What were some causes and effects of the spread of epidemic diseases?
Causes: Interaction of people groups, usually trade. Effects: Population loss, economic damage (dead people can’t do their jobs or pay taxes…), political instability
Are there any examples of spread of new foods and agricultural techniques? What were the causes and effects?
Crops (rice and cotton) from India to the Middle East. Causes: Indian Ocean trade allowed for the diffusion of these crops. Effects: These crops spurred agricultural advances (qanat system, water wheels, better pumps and wells) which allowed for more productive agriculture in the Middle East.
2 Recurring Environmental topics: • How the environment affected people • How people affected the environment
Cultural Many of the cultural themes were discussed earlier in the Social and Political sections, so there are not as many questions in this section as the others.
Be able to compare and contrast the various belief systems that arose in Era 2: • • Hinduism Buddhism Christianity Greek rationalism Legalism Confucianism Daoism
How did the following religions spread? • Hinduism • Buddhism • Christianity
• Hinduism • Buddhism • Christianity Answer: All spread merchants. Christianity and Buddhism spread via merchants. Buddhism was spread by state support in India (only under Ashoka). Christianity was supported by Roman emperors after Constantine.
Economic All economic topics for Era 2 have already been covered in previous sections of this SPICE review. Important topics include: • Diffusion of crops • Cities as centers of trade • Economic strategies: roads and currency • Coerced labor systems: slavery and corvee labor • Spread of religions by merchants along trade routes (Christianity and Buddhism) • New trade networks in Afro-Eurasia (Silk road, Indian Ocean, Trans. Saharan • Technological innovations allowing new trade