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Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous Tissues Chapter 5 in your textbook
General Epithelial Tissues 1. They are found throughout the body: covering organs, forming inner linings of body cavities. 2. They are anchored to Connective Tissues by the basement membrane. 3. They lack blood vessels. IF they do not have blood vessels how do you think they receive nutrients?
General Epithelial Tissues 1. They divide rapidly. 2. They are tightly packed together. 3. They are classified according to their layers of cells.
General Epithelial Tissues How do you think the characteristics we just listed relate to what epithelial tissues do? They divide rapidly- how does that help the body? Injuries can heal rapidly to these tissues, skin and stomach cells are continually damaged and replaced quickly.
General Epithelial Tissues • They are tightly packed- how does this help the cell? • They form protective barriers in places like the outer skin, and your mouth.
TYPES OF EPITHELIAL CELLS: Classified by layers Simple: composed of a single layer of cells. Stratified: those with two or more layers of cells. Squamous: Flattened cells. Cuboidal: Those with cubed shaped cells. Columnar: Elongated cells.
TYPES OF EPITHELIAL CELLS: Classified by layers 1. Simple Squamous Epithelium What is Simple Squamous Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Simple Squamous Epithelium What is Simple Squamous Epithelium? Thin (One layer), flattened cells Fit tightly together with flat nuclei Substances pass through easily by diffusion Where would you find it? Lines the lungs where O 2 and CO 2 are exchanged. Lines the walls of capillaries, blood and lymph vessels. What is its function? Helps gases exchange and other chemicals.
Simple Squamous Epithelium
2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium What is Simple Cuboidal Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Simple Cubodial Epithelium What is Simple Cuboidal Epithelium? Single layer of cells Cubed shaped cells with a central nucleus. Where would you find it? Covers the ovaries. Lines the kidneys and ducts of certain glands such as: salivary glands, thyroid, pancreas and liver. What is its function? Functions in secretion and absorption.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelial
Simple Columnar Epithelium What is Simple Columnar Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Simple Columnar Epithelium What is Simple Columnar Epithelium? Elongated cells (longer than they are wide) Single layer of cells. Nucleus near the basement membrane Can have cilia that help in movement Where would you find it? Lines the uterus (help move eggs to uterus). Lines the organs of the digestive tract What is its function? Thick tissues to protect. Secretes digestive fluids and absorbs nutrients from digested food.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium What is Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium What is Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium? Elongated cells (longer than they are wide) Appears to have more than one layer but does not. Nucleus is located at different ends which gives it the layer look. Have cilia Where would you find it? Lines the passage of the respiratory system. What is its function? Sticky to trap dust and microorganisms that enter with air. The cilia move the captured particles up and out of the airways. Goblet cells secrete mucus to help move dust.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Stratified Squamous Epithelium What is Stratified Squamous Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Stratified Squamous Epithelium What is Stratified Squamous Epithelium? Lots of layers of the cell. Flattened because cells divide and push the older ones outward where they are flattened. Where would you find it? Forms the outer layer of the skin (your epidermis) Soft tissue part forms in the vagina What is its function? They produce keratin a protein that produces a dry, tough, protective material that prevents water and other substances from entering or leaving. Protects and lines the vagina without keratin.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium What is Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium What is Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium? 2 or 3 layers of cuboidal cells. Where would you find it? Lines the lumen Lines the glands: mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas. What is its function? Gives more protection than a single layer does.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Stratified Columnar Epithelium What is Stratified Columnar Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Stratified Columnar Epithelium What is Stratified Columnar Epithelium? Several layers of columnar cells. Superficial layer of columnar cells next to layers of cuboidal cells. Where would you find it? Male reproductive organs What is its function? Allows the organ to contract and stretch.
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Transitional Epithelium What is Transitional Epithelium? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Transitional Epithelium What is Transitional Epithelium? Specialized type of epithelium cells Can be stretched or unstretched (ovals) Where would you find it? The liner of the bladder, uterus and urethra. What is its function? They can change because of increased tension. So they help organs expand- bladder when it is full then returns to normal. Stops urine from going back into the system.
Transitional Epithelium Unstretched
Glands Specialized cells that secrete substances into ducts or body fluid. Found in Columnar cells or cuboidal. Two types: exocrine glands and endocrine glands. Exocrine- secretes product into an internal or external duct or tube that travels to other organs or glands. Endocrine- Glands that secrete product into tissues or blood direction.
STOP: Tissue Practice 1. Tissue worksheet practice QUITELY!! 2. Tissue activity walk around. First without notes- see what you remember- second time with notes! 3. Tomorrow- Epithelial tissue microscope lab and practice.
Connective Tissues Broken down into two categories: 1. Connective Tissue Proper 2. Specialized Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue 2. Adipose Tissue (fat tissue) 3. Dense Connective Tissue
General Characteristics of Connective Tissues Binds structures Provides support and protection Fill spaces Stores fat Produce blood cells Protect against infections Help repair tissue damage
General Functions of Connective Tissues They divide easily. Have a large blood supply and are well nourished. (this is where epithelial cells receive blood and nutrients). Connected to epithelial cells below the basement membrane. Some have a fixed number of cells and some are temporary and appear when needed in response to injury or infection.
Loose Connective Tissue. Areolar tissue • What is Areolar Tissue? • Where would you find it? • What is its function?
Loose Connective Tissue- Areolar tissue What is Loose Connective tissue? Tissue that forms delicate thin membranes throughout the body. Where would you find it? Underneath epithelial cells to nourish them. Fills the spaces between skin and organs or muscles.
Loose Connective Tissue- Areolar tissue What is it’s function? Binds organs together Holds tissue fluids Protects, insulates and stores fat
Adipose Tissue What is adipose tissue? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Adipose Tissue What is Adipose tissue? Fat When cells store fat in droplets within their cytoplasm and enlarge. Where would you find it? Beneath skin, around kidneys or organs, on surface of the heart. Around the eyeballs and certain joints as well as spaces between muscle.
Adipose Tissue What is its function? Cushions joints and some organs Insulates beneath the skin Stores energy When adipose cells become too numerous the crowd the cell and other cells forming fat tissue.
Dense Connective Tissue • What is Dense Connective tissue? • Where would you find it? • What is its function?
Dense Connective Tissue What is Dense Connective tissue? Closely packed thick collagenous fibers and elastic fibers. Very strong to withstand pulling forces. Where would you find it? Ligaments and tendons The white part of your eye. Deep skin layers
Dense Connective Tissue What is it’s function? Binds body parts together through tendons (muscle to bone) or ligaments (bone to bone) Protects the eye Blood supply is poor so tissue repair is poor. How many of you have ever torn a ligament or tendon? These dense tissues are why it takes so long to recover!
STOP Review Loose Connective Tissue activity- Foldable.
Specialized Connective Tissues: 1. Blood What is blood? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Blood What is Blood Tissue? Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets that are in a fluid of plasma. Where would you find it? Formed in the red marrow within the hollow parts of certain long bones
Blood What is the function? Transports materials between body cells Helps maintain stable internal homeostasis.
Bone What is bone? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Bone What is Bone Tissue? Rigid and hard tissue formed by minerals such as Calcium Where would you find it? The skeletal system throughout your body!
What is the function? Internally supports the body structure Attachment for muscles Protects cranial organs and thoracic organs Contains and produces red blood cells as well as calcium and phosphorus Heals more rapidly than cartilage Bone
Cartilage General Characteristics Three types: Hayline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage Rigid Connective Tissue Provides support Protects Lack a direct blood supply, get minimal blood by diffusion but not enough- so healing to cartilage is slow.
Elastic Cartilage What is Elastic Cartilage? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Elastic Cartilage Functions and location: Very elastic and flexible External ears and parts of the larynx
Fibrocartilage What is Fibrocartilage? Where would you find it? What is its function?
A very tough tissue A shock absorber for structures that are subjected to pressure. For example cushions bones in the knees and between vertebrates in the spinal column. Fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage What is Hyaline Cartilage? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Hyaline Cartilage Most common Important in the growth of bones Found in the ends of bone, joints, the soft part of the nose, and respiratory passage
STOP: Connective Tissues Activities Flip chart of all tissues! Worksheet Finish microscope lab of connective tissues
Muscle Tissues Characteristics: They are contractile- the elongated cells can shorten and lengthen. As the contract, muscle fibers pull at the attached end causing body parts to move. Three types of muscle tissues: 1. Skeletal Muscle tissue 2. Smooth Muscle tissue 3. Cardiac Muscle tissue
Cardiac Muscle What is Cardiac Muscle? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Cardiac Muscle What is it? Cells are striated and joined end to end. One nuclei Where do you find it? Only in the heart What is it’s function? Involuntary (works without you knowing or thinking) Pumps blood through the heart chambers and into blood vessels.
Skeletal Muscle What is Skeletal Muscle? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Skeletal Muscle What is it? Voluntary muscle (controlled by conscious effort) Lots of nuclei in each cell Where is it? Found in muscles that attach bone.
Skeletal Muscle What is its function? Nerves stimulate the muscle fiber to contract and relax This helps us move our head, trunk, and limbs. Enable us to make facial expressions, write, talk, sing, chew, breath and so forth!
Smooth Muscle What is Smooth Muscle? Where would you find it? What is its function?
What is it? Smooth Muscle No striations Short and spindle shaped, with single central nucleus Involuntary actions Where is it? The walls of organs (stomach, intestine, bladder, blood vessels)
Nervous tissue What is Nervous tissue? Where would you find it? What is its function?
Nervous Tissue What is it? Made up of cells of neurons- which sense changes in their surroundings Where is it? The brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
Nervous Tissue What is the function? Transmit nerve impulses to other neurons, muscles or glands. They communicate with other cells and muscles and tell body functions what to do.