- Slides: 23
• Environmental law - or "environmental and natural resources law" - is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, and common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
n During the "Great Stink" of 1858, the dumping of sewerage into the River Thames began to smell so ghastly in the summer heat that Parliament had to be evacuated. Ironically, the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers Act 1848 had allowed the Metropolitan Commission for Sewers to close cesspits around the city in an attempt to "clean up" but this simply led people to pollute the river. In 19 days, Parliament passed a further Act to build the London sewerage system. London also suffered from terrible air pollution, and this culminated in the "Great Smog" of 1952, which in turn triggered its on legislative response: the Clean Air Act 1956.
n But , the strong influence of environmental law on natural resource laws, did not occur until about the 1960 s. n By the end of the twentieth century environmental law had been established as a component of the legal landscape in all developed nations of the world, many developing ones, and the larger project of international law.
Regulatory Subjects Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. n Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. n Waste management laws govern the transport, treatment, storage, and disposal of all manner of waste, including municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, and nuclear waste, among many other types. n
Regulatory Subjects n Chemical safety laws govern the use of chemicals in human activities, particularly man-made chemicals in modern industrial applications. n Water resources, Mineral resources, Forest resources laws govern the ownership and use of water resources, mineral and forest resources. n Wildlife and plants n Fish and game
Global and regional environmental issues are increasingly the subject of international law. Debates over environmental concerns implicate core principles of international law and have been the subject of numerous international agreements and declarations. n Multilateral environmental agreements sometimes create an International Organization, Institution or Body responsible for implementing the agreement. Major examples are the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). n
n The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. n It was established in 1948. In the past, it has been called the International Union for Protection of Nature (1948 -1956) and the World Conservation Union (1990 - 2008).
IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable. ” n It has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organisations. IUCN employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries. n Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. n It has been involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. n
IUCN’s headquarters in Gland
n IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity. It is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
The 10 Most Polluted Countries in the World 10. Kuwait is the fourth largest oil exporter among the OPEC countries. Their oil industry accounts for half their GDP. Its large oil refineries and industrial plants are contaminating the air at incredible speed while development in the country is still very slow for most citizens.
9. Nigeria is one of the most populated countries in the world, with over 155 million people. Its rapid urbanization and industrial growth has lead to a lack of planning in terms of an ecological point of view, which has resulted in high levels of pollution.
8. Iran has oil reserves and natural gas reserves larger than most countries in the world. But its industry is not as developed; therefore, nationally produced gas has caused a lot of air pollution.
7. United Arab Emirates UAE is the world’s fourth biggest oil exporter and a very developed Middle Eastern country. Its high production of waste per capita, water consumption and carbon emission sets them up at number seven on our list. The problem with UAE is that their economic structure is based on oil refineries and oil money which has increased over the years.
6. Egypt’s biggest sources of pollution are factories notorious for polluting the air with lead, gases and cement dust. In addition to that, vehicle exhaust fumes are a major problem in big cities like Cairo.
5. Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest producers and exporters of petroleum. It also the second largest oil producer and holds one-fifth of the world’s oil reserves. Oil, power, desalination and other industrial activities near the coast have led to sewage outflows, and oil and chemical plumes.
4. Senegal’s problem is similar to Nigeria’s. These two countries have experienced rapid growth and urbanization, and a lack of planning has lead to carbon emissions rising.
3. India has a particular problem because of its gigantic population and rapid urbanization. Carbon emissions are out of control. New Delhi has ranked among the most polluted cities in the world together with Shanghai, China.
2. Pakistan Political instability, corruption and a lack of government measures to curb carbon emissions have led to a cloak of thick smoke over major cities.
1. Mongolia is home to one of the world’s most polluted cities — Ulaanbaatar. This city’s population has expanded by 70 percent over the last 20 years with the city’s infrastructure unable to keep up with the growth. The number of premature deaths, cases of chronic bronchitis and respiratory related hospital admissions are on a rapid rise.
Top 10 Cleanest Countries Switzerland 2. Luxembourg 3. Australia 4. Singapore 5. Czech Republic 6. Germany 7. Spain 8. Austria 9. Sweden 10. Norway 1.