Environmental concerns are driving the development of the

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Environmental concerns are driving the development of the welding processes and applications by Bertil

Environmental concerns are driving the development of the welding processes and applications by Bertil Pekkari ESAB AB, Box 8004, 402 77 Göteborg, Sweden bertil. [email protected] se JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Sustainability objectives for different R&D programmes Aeronautics & Space · Reduction of CO 2

Sustainability objectives for different R&D programmes Aeronautics & Space · Reduction of CO 2 by 50 % per passenger-km in the long term · Reduction of NOX-gases by 20 % (80 %) in the short (long) term · Reduction of external noise by 4 -5 d. B (10 d. B) in the short (long) term JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Sustainability objectives for different R&D programmes Shipyards · Lower weight 40 % by use

Sustainability objectives for different R&D programmes Shipyards · Lower weight 40 % by use of high strength steel (690 grade steel) · Lower running cost 30 % · Reduction of CO 2 emissions 15 % · Lower manufacturing cost 20 % JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Sustainability objectives for different R&D programmes Automotive · Significantly improved fuel efficiency: 3, 2

Sustainability objectives for different R&D programmes Automotive · Significantly improved fuel efficiency: 3, 2 – 4, 5 litre/100 km · Lower CO 2 emission: 86 – 108 g/km · Low environmental impact - 80 -85 % recyclable by 2006 JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Typical user priorities and opinions today • Functionality and service are the major concerns

Typical user priorities and opinions today • Functionality and service are the major concerns when buying welding equipment and consumables • Welding is primarly considered a ”health and safety” problem • Welding has a small environmental aspect compared to other manufacturing processes • Packaging is a cause of operational problems • Many have a low degree of environmental awareness JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Companies segregated according to their environmental awareness Passive companies Authority abiding companies Law optimizing

Companies segregated according to their environmental awareness Passive companies Authority abiding companies Law optimizing companies Environmentally conscious companies Environmentally adapted companies Increased environmental awareness JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

INFLUENCE ON INNOVATION INFLUENCE ON DEMAND • • Research and development Life-cycle assessment Eco-design

INFLUENCE ON INNOVATION INFLUENCE ON DEMAND • • Research and development Life-cycle assessment Eco-design guidelines Environmental aspects in product standards • Education and training • Transfer of knowledge • • • INFLUENCE ON SUPPLY INFLUENCE ON THE END-OF-LIFE PHASE • Codes of conduct • Long-term agreements • Environmental management systems • Supply chain management JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari Environmental statements Eco-labels (ISO type I) Eco-declarations (ISO type III) Purchasing and public procurement • Price elements • Product panels • Market-driven recycling • Take-back systems

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Al-consumption in the car industry JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Al-consumption in the car industry JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Audi A 2 completely in Al • YAG- laser welding 30 meter, P =

Audi A 2 completely in Al • YAG- laser welding 30 meter, P = 4 k. W, v =5, 5 m/min • MIG-welding 20 meter, v = 0, 7 m/min • Selfpiercing riveting 1800 st • Number of robots 220 st • Degree of mechanisation 80 % JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

ULSAB AVC Advanced Vehicle Concepts R&D consortium with 33 steel companies e. g. POSCO,

ULSAB AVC Advanced Vehicle Concepts R&D consortium with 33 steel companies e. g. POSCO, Kobe Steel, Nippon Steel, Corus JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

ULSAB light weight body 25 % weight reduction Improved crash safety Tailored blanks and

ULSAB light weight body 25 % weight reduction Improved crash safety Tailored blanks and tube structures used Manufacturing processes • Traditional stamping • Hydroforming • Spotwelding • Laserwelding 90 % AHSS JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari Economically feasible

Achieved results ULSAB - AVC • Effective design concepts in AHSS -200 kg lighter

Achieved results ULSAB - AVC • Effective design concepts in AHSS -200 kg lighter • High crash safety – meeting year 2004 requirement • Low fuel consumption: 3, 2/4, 5 litre/100 km • Low environmental impact: CO 2= 86 -108 g/km and recyclable • Affordable manufacturing costs JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

EU-shipyard project Objectives • Lower weight 40 % - High strength steel (690 grade

EU-shipyard project Objectives • Lower weight 40 % - High strength steel (690 grade steel) • Lower running cost 30 % • Reduction of CO 2 -emission 15 % • Lower manufacturing cost 20 % DEMANDS • Development of joining processes • Change of maintenance procedures • Improvement of corrosion processes JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Annual output 28, 7 million GT JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Annual output 28, 7 million GT JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Robot welding gantry Robots use growing in shipyards JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil

Robot welding gantry Robots use growing in shipyards JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Tandem MAG welding of Panel Stiffeners Welding data Electrodes = 1. 2 mm Throat

Tandem MAG welding of Panel Stiffeners Welding data Electrodes = 1. 2 mm Throat thickness = 4. 5 mm Stickout = 20 mm JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Dock. Welder ·EU project ·Demonstration of flexible modular automation applied to ship building ·Automatic

Dock. Welder ·EU project ·Demonstration of flexible modular automation applied to ship building ·Automatic welding of ship sections in the dock Participants • Amrose Denmark • APS Germany • Cybenetix France • Lindö Shipyard Denmark • Ficantieri Shipyard Italy • Inst. For Production Technoolgy JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Ship panels 20 x 16 m welded with the hybrid laser MIG process 4

Ship panels 20 x 16 m welded with the hybrid laser MIG process 4 CO 2 -laser 12 k. W JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

YAG-laser installation (SHIPYAG planned EU-Project) Potential participants: • Meyer Shipyard Germany • HDW Shipyard

YAG-laser installation (SHIPYAG planned EU-Project) Potential participants: • Meyer Shipyard Germany • HDW Shipyard Germany • Chantier de l´Atlantique France • ESAB • Det Norska Veritas Norway • Astilleros Shipyard Spain • Odense Shipyard Denmark • Ficantieri Shipyard Italy • Research centres in the Netherlands, Italy, Germany etc JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Wind Power Stations JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Wind Power Stations JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Typical size and shape of the plate before plate rolling 10 mm 3, 25°

Typical size and shape of the plate before plate rolling 10 mm 3, 25° ~8 m JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Typical joint preparation 30° 30° 30° JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Typical joint preparation 30° 30° 30° JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Materials • Ordinary carbon-manganese: Yield strength 350 -420 MPa. • Impact requirement: 47 J

Materials • Ordinary carbon-manganese: Yield strength 350 -420 MPa. • Impact requirement: 47 J at -40ºC • Flux: OK Flux 10. 71 • Wire: OK Autrod 12. 20, 12. 22, 12. 24. Diameter 2. 5, 3. 0, 4. 0 mm. • Cored wire: OK Tubrod 15. 00 S. CTOD-tested with OK Flux 10. 71 • Tack welding: OK Autrod 12. 51. Diameter 1. 2 -1. 6 mm. • Plate thickness: 8 -50 mm. • Filler material consumption: 1. 5 tons weld metal/MW JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

The joint for the foundation flange to the first shell JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03

The joint for the foundation flange to the first shell JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Some welding data t=45 mm, X-joint 17 18 3 2 1 20 22 19

Some welding data t=45 mm, X-joint 17 18 3 2 1 20 22 19 21 23 JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Tapering between shells of different thickness Recommended tapering for reducing the stress concentration at

Tapering between shells of different thickness Recommended tapering for reducing the stress concentration at the weld joint. 4 70° JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari 15°

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Manipulator with clamping device for the flange JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Manipulator with clamping device for the flange JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Cu canister for nuclear waste • Length 4830 mm • Diameter 1050 mm •

Cu canister for nuclear waste • Length 4830 mm • Diameter 1050 mm • Thickness Cu-lid to be welded • Weight JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari 27 tonnes 50 mm

Deep repository for spent nuclear waste 500 metres deep JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14

Deep repository for spent nuclear waste 500 metres deep JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Cu-weld made by ”Reduced Pressure” Electron Beam Welding • Pressure 5 mbar • Voltage

Cu-weld made by ”Reduced Pressure” Electron Beam Welding • Pressure 5 mbar • Voltage 200 k. V • Amperage 300 m. A • Shielding gas He • Beam Diameter 4 mm JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Welding of a lid to Cu-canister for nuclear waste with = 50 mm in

Welding of a lid to Cu-canister for nuclear waste with = 50 mm in Sweden A transverse metallurgical section through 50 mm thick Cu stir weld The early stages of a Cu canister weld. Note that the tool is operating at read heat A 120 degree weld segment JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

FSW plant for welding Cucanister for nuclear waste JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil

FSW plant for welding Cucanister for nuclear waste JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari

Conclusions Driving forces behind the development of welding processes and applications 1. Productivity 2.

Conclusions Driving forces behind the development of welding processes and applications 1. Productivity 2. Quality 3. Flexibility 4. Working environment 5. Sustainability - Reduction of energy consumption - Use of renewable energy sources - Safe disposal of waste - Safety JWRI Anniversary 2003 -03 -14 Bertil Pekkari