Enhance Livelihoods in Pastoral Areas South Sudan Pastoral

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Enhance Livelihoods in Pastoral Areas South Sudan

Enhance Livelihoods in Pastoral Areas South Sudan

Pastoral systems are economically viable but fragile as they manage a fragile environment M

Pastoral systems are economically viable but fragile as they manage a fragile environment M a n a g e m e n t Based on risk management Spatial management which needs to maintain mobility as best way to utilize resources Accumulation of capital only in livestock assets (increase the risk and diminish it at the same time) Need to maintain a minimum herd size to face future risk and face social obligations Strategic sale to get cash in return to purchase food, services, items, social obligations ü Compromise between the need of cash and the need of keeping the animal as it represent a productive/reproductive capital to recover after the crisis, contribute to stock building, expresses social status ü The basic economic logic is that poorer pastoral households need to build herds before more commercially-orientated market engagement becomes feasible. ü This behavior does not reflect a fixation with acquiring livestock for reasons of social status only, but, is a rationale economic strategy given the vulnerability context, and the high economic returns from livestock relative to other economic opportunities in these areas

Pastoral systems are under threat therefore livelihood and food security are under threat too

Pastoral systems are under threat therefore livelihood and food security are under threat too Diminishing natural resources, grazing patterns and corridors progressive land sequestration Erosive impact of livestock diseases Water scarcity, Insecurity, conflicts, cattle rustling Insufficient market access and declining terms of trade, commodities price steadily increasing Little investment to enhance pastoral production system and alternative livelihood Any of the factors undermining pastoral livelihood consequently put at risk the capacity pastoralist have to produce or purchase food.

South Sudan, livestock snapshot n 11. 7 million cattle, 12. 4 million goats and

South Sudan, livestock snapshot n 11. 7 million cattle, 12. 4 million goats and 12. 1 million sheep, this amounts to the sixth largest livestock herd in Africa with an asset value roughly estimated at SDG 7 billion. n More than 85% of all households in Southern Sudan are livestock producers/keepers n Estimated number of 950, 000 livestock keepers engaged in pastoralism and agro-pastoralism who are considered as the main livestock keepers n In comparison with the relatively low human population this places Southern Sudan as the country with the highest livestock per capita ratio in Africa with a calculated average number of livestock to be 25 per household

South Sudan on the edge Sub-Sahara Increase herd size to: South Sudan 10%- 3%

South Sudan on the edge Sub-Sahara Increase herd size to: South Sudan 10%- 3% 20 -40%10 -15 % 2. sell (terms of trade are progressively deteriorating) ? % 1. 5 - 3. 5% 1. capitalize (environmental stress increases risk) 7%-14% < 4% Southern Sudan could be losing more than 1 million cattle (both young and mature) and 3 million shoats annually through death, over and above the tolerable levels Commercial off-take Mortality Herd size Annual growth

Smaller livestock keepers are less resilient PP Pastoral policies (IGAD -CPF) X% 2 -3%?

Smaller livestock keepers are less resilient PP Pastoral policies (IGAD -CPF) X% 2 -3%? ? % 20 -40%10 -15 % Animal health services Cash transfer < 4% Marketing interventions Y% Productive infrastructures “”as the recurrence of droughts heightens and pastoralists gradually embrace the cash economy, pastoralists are increasingly availing their animals to markets” Ekuam, CEWARN-IGAD, ISS

OLS – FAO  GREP After Rinderpest eradicated At least 8 diseases to control

OLS – FAO GREP After Rinderpest eradicated At least 8 diseases to control 2000 trained 400 -800 active • Embedded in the • Deployment scheme Community with higher level • Trained for detection professional network • Supported by Cost established recovery system • Spatial distribution • Donor/Agency support rather than • Global-Regional quantitative criteria Commitment • Engagement of the private sector, • Sustainability never veterinary drugs, addressed pharmacies • No involvement of the • Extended knowledge private sector toward production, • Huge drop-off market, IEWS and LEWS Supervised by multi-disciplinary teams and be part of a multidisciplinary team at cattle camp trough Cattle camp initiatives of: • One health discipline (OH platform) and nutrition • Education • Indigenous early warning system (FEWSNET) • Livestock early warning system (GL-CRSP*) • Conflict early warning and monitor system (CEWARN-IGAD**) • Support to cattle rustling prevention initiatives (IGAD-EAPCCO-ISS – Mifugo Project***) through LITS. • Community awareness and monitoring (KAP) • Agents in DRR and DRM Community based animal health workers CBAHWs, South Sudan

Programme Focus n n n n Bridging the gap between emergency relief and development

Programme Focus n n n n Bridging the gap between emergency relief and development assistance, Establish viable pastoralist and alternative livelihoods*, Enhancement of livelihoods options to reduce vulnerability and destitution in pastoral regions, Improving livestock production and marketing, Improving natural resource management, Strengthening civil governance and conflict mitigation, Promoting local, national, regional and international policies beneficial to pastoral areas

 • In considerations regarding alternative sources of income a distinction should be made

• In considerations regarding alternative sources of income a distinction should be made between: n alternative livelihoods strategies (e. g. , exit), complementary livelihood strategies (e. g. , charcoal production, handicrafts) and enhanced (livestock-centered) livelihood strategies (i. e. market integration, dairy products). n n