English Morphology and Lexicology Shaoguangqinggmail com www windofspring
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English Morphology and Lexicology [email protected]. com www. windofspring. weebly. com
Chapter 5 Word meaning o 5. 1 The meanings of ‘meaning’ n o 5. 2 Motivation n o Reference; Concept; Sense Onomatopoeic; Morphological; Semantic; Etymological 5. 3 Types of meaning n n Grammatical vs. Lexical Conceptual vs. Associative
5. 1 The meanings of ‘meaning’ o 5. 1. 1 Reference n n In linguistics, we use the triangle of reference to explain how words convey meaning. Reference is the relationship between language and the world.
the triangle of reference
The triangle of reference says that a word suggests an idea in the mind of the hearer. The idea connects to a real-world object.
Hurford and Heasley 1983: 25 o By means of reference, a speaker indicates which things in the world (including persons) are being talked about. n (My son) is in (the beech tree). Identifies persons Identifies things
The reference of a word to a thing outside the language is arbitrary and conventional. cat
Although reference is a kind of abstraction, yet with the help of context, it can refer to something specific. o Jean forgot to feed her cat yesterday evening. Therefore, meaning can be pinned down by the user, time, place, etc. (context)
The same thing can have different referring expressions without causing any confusion. 1. animal 2. my dear 3. Jassy 4. this 5. She 6. .
5. 1. 2 Concept con ce pt Linking words
Concept vs. Meaning o o Meaning and concept are closely related; They are both related directly to referents and are notions of words.
Concept vs. Meaning o o Concept, reflecting the objective world in the human mind, is universal to all men alike regardless of culture, race, language, etc. [i. e. concept is beyond language. ] However, meaning belongs to language, so is restricted to language use.
Concept vs. Meaning o A concept may have as many referring expressions as there are languages in the world. bird oiseau 鸟 새 Vogel
Concept vs. Meaning o Even in the same language, the same concept can be expressed in different words. n much and many have the same concept, but collocate with different words. o o much time/money/water many people/ books/ buildings
Concept vs. Meaning o The same concept, the different words/socio-cultural (stylistic) values n n die-pass away ask-question quarrel-argue …
meaning vs. sense vs. reference o Every word that has meaning has sense, but not every word has reference. n n probably, nearly, and, if, but, yes… All have meanings; All have senses; None refers to anything in the world (reference).
5. 1. 3 Sense o Sense denotes the relationship inside the language. n The sense of an expression is its place in a system of semantic relationships with other expressions in the language.
meaning vs. sense vs. reference o Expressions in different dialects have the same sense. n n pavement (Br. E. ) pal sidewalk (Am. E. ) chum
5. 2 Motivation o Word form vs. meaning n n arbitrary (no logical relationship) and conventional (following accepted customs): non-motivated (the connection between form and meaning can be explained) o o Onomatopoeic motivation; Morphological motivation; Semantic motivation; Etymological motivation
5. 2. 1 Onomatopoeic Motivation o Words are created by imitating the natural sounds or noises. n n n n bow-wow bang ping-pong miaow cuckoo tick-tuck ha ha
Can you guess which animal produces each of the following sounds? o o o o o crow [krəʊ] quack [kwæk] trumpet ['trʌmpɪt] buzz [bʌz] croak [krəʊk] squeak [skwiːk] neigh [neɪ] bleat [bliːt] hiss [hɪs] roar [rɔ: ] o o o o o crows or cocks ducks elephants bees or flies frogs mice horses goats snakes lions
5. 2. 2 Morphological Motivation o o If a word is morphologically motivated, a direct connection can be observed between the morphological structure of the word and its meaning. If one knows the meaning of each morpheme, one can figure out the meaning of the whole word. n airmail (mail by air) n reading lamp (lamp for reading) n miniskirt (small skirt) n hopeless (without hope)
5. 2. 2 Morphological Motivation o However, not all words are morphologically motivated. n black market o illegal selling and buying n greenhorn o a newcomer
5. 2. 3 Semantic Motivation o o Semantic Motivation means that motivation is based on semantic factors. It is a kind of mental association; it explains the connection between the literal sense and figurative sense of the word. n n n mouth (of a river); foot (of a mountain) His is fond of the bottle. The pen is mightier than the sword.
5. 2. 4 Etymological Motivation o It deals with the source of the word name and its sense, e. g n pen o o n Now: a writing tool Originally: ‘feather’-before modern pens were created, feathers were used for writing. laconic o o ‘brief’ or ‘short’ Derived from “Lacons”-a tribe of people who were known for their brevity of speech and for their habit of never using more words than necessary.
5. 2. 4 Etymological Motivation o It deals with the source of the word name and its sense, e. g n Braille o o n a system of printing for blind people is derived from the inventor of braille, Louis Braille; walkman o o a small cassette player with headphones which people carry around so that they can listen to music, for example, while they are travelling comes from the brand Walkman.
5. 3 Types of meaning 5. 3. 1 Grammatical vs. Lexical meaning Grammatical meaning o Part of speech o Singular/plural o Tenses o Inflectional forms of verbs n The dog is chasing a cat. o Different lexical meanings, but the same grammatical meaning n n tables; men; oxen; potatoes taught; worked; forgave
5. 3 Types of meaning 5. 3. 1 Grammatical vs. Lexical meaning Grammatical meaning o Part of speech o Singular/plural o Tenses o Inflectional forms of verbs n The dog is chasing a cat. o The same lexical meaning, but different grammatical meanings n forget; forgets; forgotten; forgetting
5. 3 Types of meaning 5. 3. 2 Conceptual o o vs. The meaning given in dictionary; denotative meaning Constant and relative stable n the sun Associative o The secondary meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning n n Connotative m. Stylistic m. Affective m. Collocative m.
1. Connotative meaning o mother n n o denotative meaning: female parent connotative meaning: love, care, tenderness, forgiving… home n n DM: a dwelling place CM: family, friends, warmth, safety, love, convenience… (East or west, home is best. There is no place like home. )
2. Stylistic meaning o formal; informal; literary; archaic; slang n n pregnant expecting (informal) knocking up (slang) in the club (slang)
Five degrees of formality o o o 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Frozen: e. g. , charger formal Formal: e. g. , steed neutral Consultative: e. g. , horse Casual: e. g. , nag informal Intimate: e. g. , plug
3. Affective meaning appreciative (showing appreciation) o famous o determined o slim/slender o black pejorative경멸적 (showing contempt) o notorious o pigheaded o skinny o nigger
Appreciative or pejorative? o o He is bright and ambitious. Knowledge of inequality has stimulated envy, ambition and greed. The reactionary’s chief ambition is to become the emperor. One who is filled with ambition usually works hard.
4. Collocative meaning pretty =Good looking= handsome o o o o girl boy woman flower garden color village o o o o boy man car woman overcoat airline typewriter
4. Collocative meaning tremble quiver =shake involuntarily= o tremble with fear o quiver with excitement
4. Collocative meaning green o green color green o o o green on the job (immature; inexperienced) green fruit (raw fruit; not yet ripe ) green with envy green-eyed monster (=envy; jealousy)