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English B 50 ARGUMENT ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS
Argument �What do we mean by the term “argument”? Often times people find a negative connotation associated with the term—as in, “I had an argument with my best friend”. In the academic sense, however, argument has much more to do with rational exploration of ideas to promote further understanding of a particular issue or problem. In its most basic form, an argument consists of a position or stance supported by reasons. �I think we should go out for dinner tonight (position, or claim) because I’m tired and don’t feel like cooking (support, or reasons).
Argument Cont’d �Argument, then, happens every day, all around us. �Think of a recent argument you made—when was the last time you wanted to convince someone of something? What was the scenario? Turn and share with a partner �Why do you think we put so much emphasis on argument and persuasion? Why is it so important? The ability to successfully persuade people puts you in a position of power. You are more likely to do well in school, at work, and even with friends if you are able to construct convincing arguments You are also less likely to be taken advantage of if you are able to deconstruct and evaluate the arguments of others
The Power of Persuasion �In addition to supporting claims with reasons, we can make our arguments more convincing if we employ rhetorical appeals which will help us connect with our audience. Ethos Pathos Logos
Ethos �Using ethos is making an ethical appeal to your audience When you establish ethos, you establish your credibility in the situation. What ways might you try to establish your own credibility when making an argument? � Using a calm, rational tone � Using correct grammar and spelling � Citing references properly to showcase your academic honesty and integrity
Pathos �Pathos is a pathetic or emotional appeal. It helps your audience relate to you and your position. �Pathos can play on fears, tug on heartstrings, or incite anger. It appeals more to the heart of the audience than the head. �Can you think of any examples of pathos you’ve seen or read in an argument? �http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=9 gsp. Elv 1 yvc
Logos �Logos is a logical appeal. It shows your audience the best information in support of your claim. �It appeals to the mind rather than the heart. �Statistics, facts, and figures are all good uses of Logos. Since drunk drivers are involved in over 50% of traffic fatalities, we need harsher punishment for first time offenders.
Target Audience �Each successful argument has a specific audience in mind: a target audience. �The author, then, is able to tailor the argument to the audience for maximum persuasion. �Who do you imagine is the target audience for this commercial? http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=1 kr. Jqn 3 smb. I
Ad Activity �Get into groups of 3 or 4. Each group will get a magazine ad to analyze. �In your groups, you will need to Identify target audience Find all means of persuasion employed by the ad (ethos, pathos, and logos) Decide whether the ad was effective; if you think a member of the target audience would likely buy the product due to the ad, then the ad was effective. Keep in mind that you may not be members of the target audience, so try to put yourself in their shoes, so to speak. Your group will present your findings to the class.