Energy Flow Cycles Element Cycles BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Matter

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Energy Flow & Cycles Element Cycles

Energy Flow & Cycles Element Cycles

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Matter within ecosystems is recycled.

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Matter within ecosystems is recycled.

All Cycles Are Related

All Cycles Are Related

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen & other elements cycle from the abiotic

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen & other elements cycle from the abiotic (“geo” nonliving environment) to biotic (“bio” living organisms) & then back to biotic the environment. abiotic

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen & other elements move through a regularly

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen & other elements move through a regularly repeated sequence of events. HO C l Define a cycle. O N l A cycle is a repeated sequence of events. 2

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Most element cycles have an atmospheric “bank” where the element is

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Most element cycles have an atmospheric “bank” where the element is found in large amounts. atmosphere “bank”

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Elements move from the “bank” into organisms. atmosphere “bank”

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Elements move from the “bank” into organisms. atmosphere “bank”

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Organisms release elements in daily activities or after death. l Give

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Organisms release elements in daily activities or after death. l Give an example of an activity that releases elements. atmosphere “bank” RIP

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Decomposers (or combustion or erosion) break down organic matter. l What

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Decomposers (or combustion or erosion) break down organic matter. l What is a result of their actions? atmosphere “bank” RIP

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Three example cycles: – Water – Carbon (carbon-oxygen) – Nitrogen H

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES l Three example cycles: – Water – Carbon (carbon-oxygen) – Nitrogen H 2 O C N O

WATER CYCLE On your notes sheet, label the steps of the water cycle –

WATER CYCLE On your notes sheet, label the steps of the water cycle – evaporation – condensation – precipitation – transpiration

WATER CYCLE § Evaporation – the process by which water changes from a liquid

WATER CYCLE § Evaporation – the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas § Condensation – water cools and condenses into tiny droplets § Precipitation – rain, sleet, snow, or hail § Transpiration – water evaporating from the leaves of plants

water cycle diagram

water cycle diagram

biotic WATER CYCLE abiotic l Nonliving portions of the water cycle include condensation, evaporation

biotic WATER CYCLE abiotic l Nonliving portions of the water cycle include condensation, evaporation & precipitation.

WATER CYCLE l Living portions of the water cycle include plants performing transpiration and

WATER CYCLE l Living portions of the water cycle include plants performing transpiration and water intake by all organisms. biotic abiotic

WATER CYCLE l Water vapor exits plant leaves during transpiration through tiny openings called

WATER CYCLE l Water vapor exits plant leaves during transpiration through tiny openings called stomata.

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part by the sun’s heat energy in a process similar to the way we lose water when we perspire.

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part by the sun’s heat energy in a process similar to the way we lose water when we perspire.

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part by the sun’s heat energy in a process similar to the way we lose water when we perspire.

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part by the sun’s heat energy in a process similar to the way we lose water when we perspire.

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part

WATER CYCLE l Water loss from plant leaves during transpiration is caused in part by the sun’s heat energy in a process similar to the way we lose water when we perspire.

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l Why are water cycles said to be driven by the sun?

WATER CYCLE l What happens to water as heat energy from the sun warms

WATER CYCLE l What happens to water as heat energy from the sun warms it?

WATER CYCLE l What would happen to water vapor in the air if it

WATER CYCLE l What would happen to water vapor in the air if it began to cool (loss of heat energy)?

WATER CYCLE l What would happen to water vapor in the air if it

WATER CYCLE l What would happen to water vapor in the air if it began to cool (loss of heat energy)? x

WATER CYCLE l What would happen to water vapor in clouds if it began

WATER CYCLE l What would happen to water vapor in clouds if it began to cool even more? x

water cycle diagram animated

water cycle diagram animated

CARBON CYCLE l All living things contain carbon. l Carbon is found in carbohydrates,

CARBON CYCLE l All living things contain carbon. l Carbon is found in carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. l Carbon dioxide is “banked” in the atmosphere

CARBON CYCLE l The Carbon Cycle is often called the Carbon-Oxygen. Why do you

CARBON CYCLE l The Carbon Cycle is often called the Carbon-Oxygen. Why do you think this is? CO 2 respiration photosynthesis O 2

CARBON CYCLE l How does carbon enter the living part of the cycle? CO

CARBON CYCLE l How does carbon enter the living part of the cycle? CO 2 CO 2 CO CO 2 2 CO 2 + H 2 O ----> C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2

CARBON CYCLE l Carbon is returned to the atmosphere environment by: – cellular respiration

CARBON CYCLE l Carbon is returned to the atmosphere environment by: – cellular respiration – erosion – combustion – decomposition

CARBON CYCLE l On your notes sheet, label the steps of the carbon cycle.

CARBON CYCLE l On your notes sheet, label the steps of the carbon cycle. – respiration – photosynthesis – decomposition – combustion – erosion

CARBON CYCLE

CARBON CYCLE

CARBON CYCLE – Respiration - CO is released back into the 2 atmosphere when

CARBON CYCLE – Respiration - CO is released back into the 2 atmosphere when food (glucose) is broken down during respiration – Photosynthesis - CO 2 is taken from the air and converted into food (glucose) – Decomposition - CO 2 is released back into the atmosphere as organic matter is broken down – Combustion - CO 2 is released back into the atmosphere when organic material is burned – Erosion – CO 2 is released back into the atmosphere when erosion breaks down rock such as limestone containing Ca. CO 3(calcium carbonate)

CARBON CYCLE l Like other element cycles, the carbon cycle links nonliving & living

CARBON CYCLE l Like other element cycles, the carbon cycle links nonliving & living parts of the environment. biotic abiotic

CARBON CYCLE l The exchange of gases during photosynthesis and respiration is a major

CARBON CYCLE l The exchange of gases during photosynthesis and respiration is a major example of the livingnonliving cycle of carbon-oxygen. CO 2 respiration photosynthesis O 2

CARBON CYCLE CO 2 in Atmosphere animal respiration factory soil and organism respiration assimilation

CARBON CYCLE CO 2 in Atmosphere animal respiration factory soil and organism respiration assimilation by plants plant respiration photosynthesis by algae respiration by algae and aquatic animals litter limestone decomposition fossil fuels coal, gas, petroleum oceans, lakes

l Write a descriptive summary of the events shown. carbon cycle animated

l Write a descriptive summary of the events shown. carbon cycle animated

NITROGEN CYCLE l 78% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas but it is in

NITROGEN CYCLE l 78% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas but it is in a form most living things cannot use. N 2 free nitrogen

NITROGEN CYCLE l If we can’t take in free nitrogen, how do we acquire

NITROGEN CYCLE l If we can’t take in free nitrogen, how do we acquire it so we can use it in our bodies? l Why do we need nitrogen in our bodies?

NITROGEN CYCLE l How do we acquire usable nitrogen? l Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrogen

NITROGEN CYCLE l How do we acquire usable nitrogen? l Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrogen into nitrates. l Plants absorb nitrates. l Animals eat plants. N 2 in air NITRATES nitrogen-fixing bacteria

NITROGEN CYCLE l How does the nitrogen return to the atmosphere? l Denitrifying bacteria

NITROGEN CYCLE l How does the nitrogen return to the atmosphere? l Denitrifying bacteria convert the nitrates back into nitrogen. denitrifying bacteria N 2 in air NITRATES nitrogen-fixing bacteria

NITROGEN CYCLE l Why do we need nitrogen? protein ? Nitrogen

NITROGEN CYCLE l Why do we need nitrogen? protein ? Nitrogen

NITROGEN CYCLE l Can plants & animals use free nitrogen? what form must N

NITROGEN CYCLE l Can plants & animals use free nitrogen? what form must N 2 be to be used by plants? N 2 free nitrogen l In l What organisms can fix the N 2 into a usable form? nitrates nitrogen-fixing bacteria

NITROGEN CYCLE Simplified Free N 2 in Atmosphere denitrifying bacteria RIP Organic material nitrogen-fixing

NITROGEN CYCLE Simplified Free N 2 in Atmosphere denitrifying bacteria RIP Organic material nitrogen-fixing bacteria NITRATES

NITROGEN CYCLE lightning fixes N 2 into nitrates denitrifying bacteria nitrates nitrogen-fixing bacteria organic

NITROGEN CYCLE lightning fixes N 2 into nitrates denitrifying bacteria nitrates nitrogen-fixing bacteria organic matter

Reviewing the Cycles l WATER CYCLE – evaporation – condensation – precipitation – transpiration

Reviewing the Cycles l WATER CYCLE – evaporation – condensation – precipitation – transpiration

Reviewing the Cycles l CARBON CYCLE – photosynthesis-respiration atmosphere – combustion “bank” – erosion

Reviewing the Cycles l CARBON CYCLE – photosynthesis-respiration atmosphere – combustion “bank” – erosion – decomposition RIP

Reviewing the Cycles l NITROGEN CYCLE – nitrogen-fixing bacteria Free N in – nitrates

Reviewing the Cycles l NITROGEN CYCLE – nitrogen-fixing bacteria Free N in – nitrates Atmosphere – decomposition – denitrification 2 denitrifying bacteria nitrogen-fixing bacteria RIP Organic material NITRATES

Cycle Interrelationships

Cycle Interrelationships