End of WWI Victory Parade WWI ends November

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End of WWI & Victory Parade • • • WWI ends November, 1918 US

End of WWI & Victory Parade • • • WWI ends November, 1918 US Celebrates the victory with parades in NYC. 4+ million soldiers return home from being mobilized in the war

Strikes & Labor Unrest • Strikes - workers refusal to work unless their demands

Strikes & Labor Unrest • Strikes - workers refusal to work unless their demands are met. – – • Prices rose quickly, wages much more slowly Unsafe, unfair business practices 1919 - 4 million workers went on strike. • Famous strikes: – – – Boston Police Strike, 1919 No. Indiana Steelworkers, 1919 United Mine Workers Coal Mine Strike, 1919

“Red Summer” of 1919 • 1920, Car bombing, Wall Street, NYC • Strikers were

“Red Summer” of 1919 • 1920, Car bombing, Wall Street, NYC • Strikers were subject to hysteria, prone to begin riots. • Fearful of pro socialist/communist actions against the American capitalist market system. • Fearful of south & eastern European immigrants.

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer • Appointed by President Woodrow Wilson. • Responsible for

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer • Appointed by President Woodrow Wilson. • Responsible for the US’ 1 st “Red Scare”. • “Palmer raids” - rounded up Soviet immigrants, deported or detained them. Acts of government repression. • The “Red Scare” was initially set off by the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

“R e d. S c ar e” • • Patriotic Americans saw a Red

“R e d. S c ar e” • • Patriotic Americans saw a Red agitator behind union organizers and every labor protest. Anti Immigrant feelings were at an all time high.

N. Vanetti & B. Sacco • • • April 1920 - a robbery at

N. Vanetti & B. Sacco • • • April 1920 - a robbery at a factory in So. Braintree, MA, – Resulted in two deaths 3 weeks later, these 2 Italian immigrants were arrested. – Known Anarchists and protesters of the “Palmer Raids”. Convicted based upon contradictory evidence and testimony. Honorable W. Thayer sentenced the accused to death. – Mass American and foreign protest did not change the verdict. Executed on Aug. 23, 1927 Claim - innocent victims of the “Red Scare”.

Marcus Garvey • Leader of African Americans in 1920 s. – • • “Struggle

Marcus Garvey • Leader of African Americans in 1920 s. – • • “Struggle for Black Identity” Back to Africa movement: hoped to take blacks back to Africa & return with imports/products to trade with in the US markets. His leadership resulted in a growing spirit of race consciousness and race pride.

Ku Klux Klan in Washington D. C. • • 1925 - KKK march down

Ku Klux Klan in Washington D. C. • • 1925 - KKK march down Pennsylvania Ave. – 40, 000 man in attendance Intolerant, Spread hate, Anti- immigrant (foreigners in general), black, Jew, Catholic. Were also against evolution 1921 & 1924 - influenced Congress to pass legislation limiting immigration into the US.

Scopes trial • • July, 1925. Dayton, Tennessee John Scopes was arrested and tried

Scopes trial • • July, 1925. Dayton, Tennessee John Scopes was arrested and tried for teaching theory of evolution. – • Scientific theory of C. Darwin, cited by traditionalists as destroying faith in the Bible. So called “monkey trial”

LAWYERS FOR THE TRIAL • William Jennings Bryan Represented the state of TN •

LAWYERS FOR THE TRIAL • William Jennings Bryan Represented the state of TN • Clarence Darrow • Famous prosecutor who defended scopes pro bono

Republican Leadership in the White House • With Warren G. Harding’s inauguration in 1920,

Republican Leadership in the White House • With Warren G. Harding’s inauguration in 1920, began 12 years of Republican leadership in the Capitol. • Presidents Harding, Coolidge & Hoover were all advocates for lassiez-faire type of government. Harding Coolidige Hoover

HARDING 1921 -1923 • Elected by a landslide in 1920. • Call for a

HARDING 1921 -1923 • Elected by a landslide in 1920. • Call for a “return to normalcy” • Refused to join the League of Nations • Restricted immigration

Albert B. Fall, Secretary of Interior • • President Harding’s Cabinet was subjected to

Albert B. Fall, Secretary of Interior • • President Harding’s Cabinet was subjected to mismanagement & corruption. Most infamous case : – “Teapot Dome Scandal” • • • 1921 - Albert B. Fall gained control of government oil fields & secretly leased them to private oil companies – Teapot Dome, Wyoming $125 k & Hundreds of cattle were give in the form of a bribe. Conviction, 1 year in jail sentence.

Vice President Coolidge swearing in. • • Warren G. Harding died August 2 nd,

Vice President Coolidge swearing in. • • Warren G. Harding died August 2 nd, 1923. – Harding was ill from eating tainted crabs while on a trip to Alaska & California. – He was also suffering from bronchial pneumonia. Calvin Coolidge, Harding’s VP was sworn into office on a farm in Vermont, by his father, a notary public at 2: 30 am, August 3, 1923. – He was resworn the next day in Washington D. C. by a Supreme Court Justice. – He was on vacation with family during the summer of 1923.

y l i m a f & e g d i l President Coo

y l i m a f & e g d i l President Coo • President Coolidge was a devote family man. – Enjoyed spending time with family vs. time with political leaders from around the country & the world. • Averaged a 4 -hour work day. • He was one not to indulge in the extravagance of the 1920’s lifestyle. • He was Pro business, as the US economy improved, Coolidge advocated more & more that government should be guided by business principles & practices.

Coolidge, Mellon & Hoover • • Political cartoons like this depicted Coolidge’s opinion on

Coolidge, Mellon & Hoover • • Political cartoons like this depicted Coolidge’s opinion on running for reelection in the 1928 election. Coolidge refused the Republican party’s nomination for President. – Opened the way for Herbert Hoover. • • • 1924 - “Keep it Cool with Coolidge” Election of Coolidge, here with Secretary of Treasury Mellon & Secretary of Commerce, Hoover. All 3 men were pro business. – Industrial output DOUBLED during period 1921 - 1929 – Silent government/laissez-faire in its approach to US business.

Herbert Hoover • Hoover campaigning in NYC at the Metropolis. – – • “Rugged

Herbert Hoover • Hoover campaigning in NYC at the Metropolis. – – • “Rugged individualism” was his philosophy. – • Self-made millionaire by 40 Standford University graduate. Through Hard work & diligence, the American Dream could be possible. Personified the Republican party base. – Midwestern, small-town Protestant white American voters. • Personal & Political views included: – – Conservative Pro-business Advocate of small federal government Belief in the individual

1928: Herbert Hoover vs. Alfred E. Smith

1928: Herbert Hoover vs. Alfred E. Smith

US - Life in the 1920 s –Lifestyles of the 1920 s –Post -

US - Life in the 1920 s –Lifestyles of the 1920 s –Post - WWI Tensions –Republican Leadership during the 1920 s

“Roaring Twenties” “Golden Twenties” “Jazz Age” • Based on these phrases, what do you

“Roaring Twenties” “Golden Twenties” “Jazz Age” • Based on these phrases, what do you think it was like to live in the 1920’s?

 • Women won the right to vote: – 19 th Amendment, 1920 •

• Women won the right to vote: – 19 th Amendment, 1920 • Change in fashion – “Flappers” – Short Skirts, short hairdos – Lipstick • Change in the work place and leisure. Role of Women

Prohibition • 1917 - Congress passed the 18 th Amendment – Ratified in 1919

Prohibition • 1917 - Congress passed the 18 th Amendment – Ratified in 1919 • “Bootlegging” Liquor • “Speak-Easies” • 1933 - Congress passed 21 st Amendment – Ending Prohibition.

 • Becomes a big Business/Entertainment • “Heros” – Baseball: Babe Ruth & Ty

• Becomes a big Business/Entertainment • “Heros” – Baseball: Babe Ruth & Ty Cobb – College Football – Boxing: Joe Dempsey Sports

r e m u s n Co ts i b Ha • Industrial improvements

r e m u s n Co ts i b Ha • Industrial improvements of the 1920 s focused on consumer goods: – Ice boxes, Autos, & radios • Supermarkets were introduced: – Invention of cellophane

Douglas Fairbanks Lillian Gish Movies & Film • Motion Picture was a popular past

Douglas Fairbanks Lillian Gish Movies & Film • Motion Picture was a popular past time • Movie stars as celebrities grew. – Movie studios began to market films to public’s choice Clara Bow Mary Pickford • Miss America pageant – Atlantic City, 1921

“The Jazz Singer” • 1927 musical film. 1 st full length feature motion picture,

“The Jazz Singer” • 1927 musical film. 1 st full length feature motion picture, using synchronized dialogue. • “Talkies” film.

New Transportation • 1920 - 9 million registered autos • 1930 - 27 million

New Transportation • 1920 - 9 million registered autos • 1930 - 27 million registered autos – Tripled • 1920 - 387, 000 miles of roads • 1929 - 662, 000 miles of roads – Doubled • 2009 - 6. 1 Million miles • Henry Ford & the assembly line production • Auto industry employed 3. 7 million people in 1929.

Air Travel • 1927, First Trans. Atlantic Air Flight. • Within 1 year, air

Air Travel • 1927, First Trans. Atlantic Air Flight. • Within 1 year, air travel grew 4 x. Charles Lindbergh, 25 years old • May 12, 1927. Flew from San Diego, CA to Long Island, NY (22 hours) • May 20, 1927 Flew from Long Island, NY USA to Paris, France. (38 hours)