- Slides: 10
Emergent Nationalism in India from 1857 to 1947
OVERVIEW In this lesson we examine: • Definition and features of colonial rule • Gandhi’s philosophy • Hindu vs. Muslim nationalism
Colonial rule What was ‘colonial rule’? • A direct application of imperialism • One country having political control over another country • Purposes: settlement, strategy, exploitation, religion
During the 1600 s, The East India Company gradually expanded their influence throughout India from their base in Calcutta (Kolkata). As the Mughal Empire declined, the East India Company hired an Indian army to increase their military force. The India Act of 1785 established a government within the East India Company. By the 1840 s, British control of India was nearly complete. After the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the British government took over control from the East India Company.
• Brutal – Military force was heavily used during the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 and during the Amritsar massacre • Non-inclusive –of The British administration Which one these features was in What thecustoms major and features of colonial rejectedwere Indian traditions – the greatest contradiction to British Mughal emperor wasinexiled to Burma rule India? principles and why? • Non-democratic – The British government ruled directly with no elected representation from the Indian people
Gandhi’s philosophy Non-violent protest: Non-cooperation: • Marches • Resigning Mohandas Karamchand Gandhifrom (1869 government • Squatting 1948) (aka Mahatma Gandhi) was positions an In what ways could methods bein • these Renouncing British • Strikes English-trained lawyer whose actions titles and awards considered effective as well as ineffective? South Africa and India defined his • Fasting • Boycotting British version of ‘civil disobedience’ • Destroying trade and British documents and products refusing to pay taxes
• 1919 -1922: After the Amritsar Massacre, Gandhi led a satyagraha campaign against the Rowlatt Acts; he ended the campaign after violence occurred against the authorities. • 1930: Gandhi led the “Salt March” to gather sea salt in protest to the British salt tax. Gandhi’s actions strictly followed his principles • 1932: Gandhi fasted in protest to the treatmenteffect of India’s “untouchables” – and often had an inspiring on the Indian the lowest of the Hindu caste system. • people: 1939 -1945: Gandhi and the Congress party refused to support the British in WWII. • 1947: Gandhi fasted in protest to the Hindu-Muslim violence taking place after independence; the violence eventually ended.
Hindu vs. Muslim nationalism Incorporation Many Muslim Indians, the largest Separation minority in Gandhi was in favour In 1940, the Muslim India, supported efforts at decolonization but of a single League, ledinby believed that Indian they needed a separate state order Muhammad Ali Jinnah state in which the to guarantee theirmany rights. Why would nationalists be the Pakistan rights of all religions Hindupassed Resolution against were a separate Muslim state? which and minorities Gandhi, as well as a majority of Indians were of argued in favour respected. To this Muslim state, sovereignty opposed the creation of a separate but end, heto attempted over those provinces also feared civil war. did they have negotiations with the. What options which were and what League were thefor potentialpredominantly consequences Muslim. of Muslim provisions for Indian these actions? Muslims.
• Migration: Up to 12. 5 million people were uprooted as Muslims moved towards Pakistan and Hindus moved towards India • Violence: Up to one million people might have been killed in the religious fighting along the main border • What War: Kashmir, athe stateshort ruled by were and long term results Hindu leaders, had a Muslim majority; Indiapartition attempted to of take. Aug 15, 1947? the state by force and war broke out with Pakistan • Separation: East Pakistan separated from West Pakistan in 1971 and became Bangladesh after a brief internal struggle influenced by Indian soldiers of the
SUMMARY QUESTIONS • What was a definition of colonial rule and how was it applied to British India? • What was Gandhi’s interpretation of ‘civil disobedience’ and why was it successful? • Why did conflict exist between Indian Hindus and Muslims and how was the partition intended to relieve this conflict? • What were the long term results of the partition of India?