Embedded Systems Microcontrollers Embedded Processors An Overview Embedded

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Embedded Systems Microcontrollers & Embedded Processors An Overview

Embedded Systems Microcontrollers & Embedded Processors An Overview

Embedded Systems �What is an Embedded System? �Where are Embedded Systems used? �Typical Embedded

Embedded Systems �What is an Embedded System? �Where are Embedded Systems used? �Typical Embedded Systems Hardware �Embedded OS and Software �References

What is and Embedded System? A specialized computer system that is part of a

What is and Embedded System? A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface -- watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -- utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program. (Definition from wikipedia. com)

What is and Embedded System?

What is and Embedded System?

ES, Other definitions � A special purpose computer built into a larger device. ◦

ES, Other definitions � A special purpose computer built into a larger device. ◦ Special purpose: �- Embedded systems have a (more or less) well-defined purpose �- Contrast with: general purpose computers (PCs etc) �- Both hardware and software is tailored to application(s), which are well defined �- However, re-programmability is a requirement ◦ Built into a larger device: �ESs are (usually) part of a larger device, augmenting its capabilities

ES, Other definitions � Any device that includes a programmable computer but is not

ES, Other definitions � Any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer. � Anything that uses a computer but does not look like one. � The microprocessor in an embedded system is like an electric motor in a washing machine.

ES Types & Characteristics �ES Characteristics: ◦ Efficiently ◦ Cost effective ◦ Power efficiently

ES Types & Characteristics �ES Characteristics: ◦ Efficiently ◦ Cost effective ◦ Power efficiently ◦ Real-time ◦ Predictability

Where are Embedded Systems used? � Signal processing systems ◦ Real-time video, DVD players,

Where are Embedded Systems used? � Signal processing systems ◦ Real-time video, DVD players, Medical equipment. � Distributed control ◦ Network routers, switches, firewalls, mass transit systems, Elevators � “Small” systems ◦ Mobile phones, pagers, home appliances, toys, smartcards, MP 3 players, PDAs, digital cameras, sensors, pc keyboard & mouse � Modern cars: Up to 100 or more processors ◦ ◦ ◦ Engine control unit ABS systems (Anti Lock Brake systems) Emissions control Diagnostics and Security systems Accessories (doors, windows etc)

CELL PHONE –Block Diagram

CELL PHONE –Block Diagram

Typical Embedded Systems Hardware � Commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS) ◦ e. g. wireless radios,

Typical Embedded Systems Hardware � Commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS) ◦ e. g. wireless radios, sensors, I/O devices ◦ Cheap � Application-Specific ICs (ASICs) ◦ ICs tailored to meet application needs ◦ Good performance for their intended task(s) ◦ Original ESs were ASICs only � Domain-specific processors ◦ DSPs ◦ Microcontrollers � Microprocessors ◦ General Purpose Processors

ES: Solutions �Embedded Systems Solutions: ◦ Microcontrollers ◦ Embedded Processors ◦ Digital Signal processors

ES: Solutions �Embedded Systems Solutions: ◦ Microcontrollers ◦ Embedded Processors ◦ Digital Signal processors

New trends in ES HW � Systems-on-chip ◦ Usual (or desired) specs: � 32

New trends in ES HW � Systems-on-chip ◦ Usual (or desired) specs: � 32 -bit RISC CPU � Built-in interfaces to RAM and ROM � Built-in DMA, interrupt and timing controllers � Built-in interfaces to disk or flash memory � Built-in Ethernet/802. 11 interfaces � Built-in LCD/CRT interfaces ◦ New SOCs appearing almost every week! � Examples ◦ ◦ Intel Strong. ARM SA-1110 Motorola Power. PC MPC 823 e NEC VR 4181 Many, many more

Embedded OS and Software �Principal role: ‘Not transformation of data but interaction with physical

Embedded OS and Software �Principal role: ‘Not transformation of data but interaction with physical world’ �Acquires properties of physical world ◦ Takes time ◦ Consumes power ◦ Does not terminate (unless it fails)

Embedded Operating Systems: � Office-style OSes ◦ Palm. OS ◦ Windows. CE � RTOSes

Embedded Operating Systems: � Office-style OSes ◦ Palm. OS ◦ Windows. CE � RTOSes ◦ Vx. Works ◦ QNX � Linux ◦ Linux is already ubiquitous � Hundreds of different devices are using it � http: //www. linuxdevices. com/articles/AT 4936596231. html ◦ Numerous commercial + open source products � Mobile OS ◦ Symbian � Others ◦ Tiny. OS

References � Web References: ◦ ◦ ◦ www. google. com http: //www. embedded. com

References � Web References: ◦ ◦ ◦ www. google. com http: //www. embedded. com http: //www. wikipedia. org/wiki/Embedded_system http: //www. linuxdevices. com Mani Srivastava’s EE 202 A class � http: //nesl. ee. ucla. edu/courses/ee 202 a/2002 f ◦ Edward Lee, “Embedded Software” � http: //citeseer. nj. nec. com/497408. html ◦ � Microprocessors: Uffenbeck, john Books: ◦ The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Mazidi, M. A. ◦ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺻﻔﺎﺭ ، ﺧﺎکپﻮﺭ. ﻑ ،8051 ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﻤﻠی ﺑﺎ ﻣیکﺮﻭکﻨﺘﺮﻭﻟﺮ 201