Elizabethan Architecture I. Castles, Fortresses, and Peasant Dwellings • • II. Roads, Bridges, and Transportation • • III. Travel- Transportation Roads and Transportation Railways Bridges Theatre and Taverns/ Innyards • • • IV. Elizabethan Life Castles/ Fortresses Noble Estates Peasant Dwellings Theatre, taverns, and innyards Inn Yards Amphitheatres Taverns James Burbage Cafes and Shops • • Design Purpose
Castles, Fortresses, and Peasant Dwellings
Elizabethan Life Social Pyramid • The Queen was, of course, at the top of the “social pyramid, ” and lived in a castle, though she moved residences to other mansions and manors often. • Next was the Queen’s Court, such as her ladies of the bed and privy chambers, maids of honor and chamberers. There were also gentlemen who were in the Court, and all lived within a ten-mile radius of the Queen. • The Peerage to the Queen (nobles, dukes, etc. ) lived anywhere in the country, but came to Court when they were needed. The gentry (knights) also lived away from the castle, and were almost the same as the gentry.
Castles/ Fortresses • • • Many Elizabethan buildings were symmetrical. Being after the Medieval times, plain walls and floors were made into lavish ornate designs. There were many windows doors, and rooms. Castles were always made out of stone. Before Elizabethan times, Castles were generally for protection for the King or Queen, however during Elizabethan times, they were for looks and luxury. The courtyards of many buildings, including Castles, were thought to be a tribute to Elizabeth because it was in the shape of an E, including the entry hall, the main hall, the kitchen and the living area.
Castles/Fortresses (cont. ) • Other rooms within Castles, and many other houses as well, were the bedchamber, the gallery, the great hall (See right), the kitchen, the parlor, the “privy” and withdrawing rooms. • Gardens were often added as an extension of the castle, and were kept as colorful as possible.
Nobles’ Manors/ Mansions • A noble’s manor had the same E-shaped design as Elizabethan castles. They were often made of brick or stone, with three or four stories and many, many windows. There were often elaborate porches, about two or three stories high, which had a lot of arches. • These homes also had a great hall, kitchen, and several other rooms including in some “prodigy” homes, a room for the Queen to visit in, that was only used if the Queen visited.
Peasant Dwellings • Commoners were much better off in Elizabethan times than before, and could afford better houses, though they weren’t mansions. They were often small, wood-frame cottages with only one or two stories. They didn’t have elaborate doorways or many windows, but they did use “Strap work, ” where the wood created shapes on the house (see right). • These cottages also had several rooms, though they were very small, but they served their purpose.
Roads, Bridges, and Transportation
Transportation Travel • Many people chose not to travel a lot during this era because it was dangerous and expensive to travel. • It was expensive to travel because you need to get a license to travel • Getting a license reduced the amount of people wanting to travel, therefore reducing the chances of spreading disease. • Since a license cost money, the poor and the homeless could not obtain one, thus reducing the chances of them moving from one town to another. • It was a crime to travel without a license and was dealt with accordingly
Roads and Transportation • • Many roads were unpaved and they were unsuitable for carriages. They were only fit for travelling on foot. Whatever beauty the roads had was covered by filth from human waste. Most roads were only wide enough for pack animals and wagons or coaches were not allowed to travel on it. However, in southern England roads were in very bad shape because mostly wagons and carriages traveled on them. Therefore four or more oxen had to be used to travel the roads.
Railways • In 1603, the first railway in the British Isles was built by the Smythson family • It was made out of wood • It was built for colliery wagons – It looked like an early version of a train (see picture on the left) Colliery Wagon • It was most likely used for coal mining since the people operating the coal pits next to the railways also built them. • Laying down this railway would have helped them by moving the coal without too much effort • After this railway was constructed many more appeared for the sole purpose of coal mining and not for travel, since many people did not travel.
Bridges • Almost all the bridges of this time were symmetrical • Mostly made of stone • Sometimes, in order to cross a bridge, a fee was charged.
Theatre Tavern/ Innyards
Elizabethan era theater and taverns/inn-yards • Provided alcohol for travelers • Provided travelers rooms and lodgings to stay over night • Traveling minstrels (medieval entertainers/ poets) came there to sing and entertain. • James Burbage started to create plays at these inn yards which attracted many people and made them a nice profit. • The activities at the inn yards were restricted so James Burbage created theater a building that was built specifically for plays. • From inn-yards came the amphitheater.
The standard Inn Yard • This is a photograph of the White Hart inn one of the main in yards of the Elizabethan era. • Elizabethan era inn yards started in 1576 and ended in 1594.
Elizabethan amphitheater • First came the inn-yards: The Bull Inn, The Bell Savage Inn, The Cross Keys Inn, The Bell Inn, The White Hart Inn, The George Inn. • Then James Burbage started theater by creating the amphitheater. • Audience capacity – 1500 -3000 people. • Theater size – up to 100 feet in diameter. • Had no toilets. • Building duration – 6 months.
Elizabethan taverns • Sold only wine. • Picture of George Inn >>>>>> Only inn that is still standing in London.
James Burbage • James Burbage started the Theater. • Was an entrepreneur. • First man to build an amphitheater.