- Slides: 29
Elements of Poetry
Identifying Key Elements in A Poem (S. T. I. L. T. S. ) Subject Theme Imagery – figurative language Language (simple – difficult) Tone (mood) Structure (arrangement of ideas) n Theme is the message about life or human nature that is communicated by a literary work.
Form The way a poem looks-or its arrangement on the page-is its form n Poets deliberately choose the form they wish their poems to take an may even space the words and letters in a poem to create a special arrangement n Basically, it’s the way the poem looks and can affect the sound by creating a rhythm. n
Lines and Stanzas Poetry is written in lines, which may or may not be sentences. ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻴﺖ n Sometimes the lines are combined into groups called stanzas or verses. ﻣﻘﻄﻊ n The number of lines in a poem’s stanzas can be the same or can vary. n While some poems have a formal structure, others are written in a more conversational style called free verse. ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ n
“The Fire of Driftwood” By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow We spake of many a vanished scene, Line Of what we once had thought and said, Of what had been, and might have been, And who was changed, and who was dead; And all that fills the hearts of friends, When first they feel, with secret pain, Their lives thenceforth have separate ends, And never can be one again. Stanza / verse
The Elements of Poetry
A. Tone: Persona n In literature, a persona is a speaker created by the writer to tell a story or to speak in a poem. A persona is not a character in a story or narrative, nor does a persona necessarily directly reflect the author’s personal voice. A persona is a separate self, created by and distinct from the author, through which he or she speaks. . ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺙ n Look at “London” by William Blake. Who is
A. Tone: Irony n Verbal irony is the difference between what is said, and what is intended, or really thought. ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻜﻢ
A. Tone: Satire n Satire: is the ridicule of some vice or imperfection — an attack on someone or something by making it look ridiculous or worthy of scorn. ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ
B. Sound: Rhyme n Rhyme is the repetition of sounds at the ends of words such as shell and well. ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ n Internal Rhyme is the use of rhyming words within a line. ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ “Splendor falls on castle walls” n End Rhyme is the use of rhymes at the end of lines. ﺗﺬﻳﻴﻞ Twinkle, twinkle, little star How I wonder where you are.
B. Sound: Repetition n The repeating of sounds, words, phrases or lines is repetition. ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ
B. Sound: Rhythm & Meter is the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables within a line. ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻉ
B. Sound: Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. ﺟﻨﺎﺱ n Listen to the repetition of sounds in “then no one knows your name” n
B. Sound: Onomatopoeia & Assonance Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose sounds suggest their meanings, like buzz, pop, and click. ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﺎﺓ n Assonance the repetition of vowel sounds in words that don’t end with the same consonant. ﺳﺠﻊ n n Such as the ow in bow and down
Imagery refers to words and phrases that appeal to the five senses n Poets use imagery to create a picture in the reader’s mind or to remind the reader of a familiar sensation n
C. Figurative Language: Synecdoche Figurative language conveys a meaning beyond the ordinary, literal meaning. ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯ n Example: “I’m all ears” n Literal meaning is that the speaker is made of ears. n The figurative meaning is that the speaker is ready to listen. n n Using the part for the whole is called synecdoche. ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺳﻞ
C. Figurative Language: Personification n When a poet describes an animal or object as if it were human or had human qualities, that is personification. ﺗﺠﺴﻴﺪ They that had fought so well Came thro’ the jaws of Death, Back from the mouth of Hell, All that was left of them, Left of six hundred. Where’s the personification?
C. Figurative Language: Simile A simile is a comparison that uses the word like or as. ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ n Example: “His hair is like dry hay” n “My luve is like a red, red rose” n
C. Figurative Language: Metaphor A metaphor is a comparison that does not use like or as. ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ n Example: “He was eager to help but his legs were rubber” n
C. Figurative Language: Metonymy n Metonymy: this term refers to figurative language that uses particular words to represent something else with which they are associated. ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ n Metonymy is when one term is substituted for another term with which it is closely associated ("crown“ stands for ”king").
C. Figurative Language: Synaesthesia n Synaesthesia: The term is used in literature to describe of one kind of sensation in terms of another. ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺲ n When a voice is described as being "tired and pale in the darkness". "Pale" is a sight adjective used to describe a sound, “the voice. "
D. Style n Rhetoric is the art of persuasion — using language to convince or sway an audience — or the study of that art. ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻓﻦ
D. Style: Allusion n Allusion: A figure of speech making casual reference to a famous historic or literary figure or event or work of literature. ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ
D. Style: Apostrophe n the term apostrophe is used for a kind of formal invocation. Sometimes the invocation is to an absent (or even dead) person: "Milton, " writes Wordsworth, "thou shouldst be living at this hour; / England hath need of thee. " At other times, an inanimate object can be invoked: "O you gentle day sky!“. ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺟﺎﺓ
D. Style: Paradox n n n Paradox: A paradox is a statement which contains apparently opposing or incongrous elements which, when read together, turn out to make sense. ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ Emily Dickinson's poem "My Life Closed Twice Before its Close" contains a paradox in both the title and the first line. She says: My life closed twice before its close It yet remains to see If Immortality unveil A third event to me. . . This statement is paradoxical in that there are separate meanings for the words closed" and "close"--Dickinson has had experiences in her life which she feels to be equivalent to life's true closing, death itself.
D. Style: Overstatement : A boldly exaggerated statement that adds emphasis without intending to be literally true, as in the statement "He ate everything in the house. " ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ n Overstatement (also called hyperbole) may be used for serious, comic, or ironic effect. n
D. Style: Understatement: The opposite of hyperbole, understatement refers to a figure of speech that says less than is intended. ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺎﻧﺔ n Understatement usually has an ironic effect, and sometimes may be used for comic purposes, as in Mark Twain’s statement, "The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated. " n
Definitions of Literary Terms n Useful definitions for most literary terms can be found at these websites: http: //www. bedfordstmartins. com/literature/be dlit/glossary_a. htm n http: //andromeda. rutgers. edu/~jlynch/Terms/in dex. html n http: //theliterarylink. com/definitions. html n ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺑﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ n http: //www. montadabaja. com/vb/showthread. p hp? t=370