Elements and Principles of Design Purpose of Elements

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Elements and Principles of Design

Elements and Principles of Design

Purpose of Elements and Principles of Art When designing an artwork, whether it is

Purpose of Elements and Principles of Art When designing an artwork, whether it is a painting, a piece of music, a stage set, or a dance, the Elements and Principles of Design must be used to achieve certain effects.

Elements The elements are parts which can be isolated and defined in any visual

Elements The elements are parts which can be isolated and defined in any visual design. They are the structure or building blocks of a work of art, and can carry a wide variety of messages.

LINE A mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can

LINE A mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can create texture or shape and can be thick and thin.

Creates forms

Creates forms

Creates Depth and Perspective

Creates Depth and Perspective

Creates Movement

Creates Movement

Creates Contrast and Interest

Creates Contrast and Interest

Creates Emotion

Creates Emotion

LINE ● Create shape, form, movement, or texture ● Direct the viewer's gaze

LINE ● Create shape, form, movement, or texture ● Direct the viewer's gaze

Horizontal lines - calm, tranquility, and space. Vertical lines - height, and grandeur. Tightly

Horizontal lines - calm, tranquility, and space. Vertical lines - height, and grandeur. Tightly angled convergent lines - dynamic, lively, and active.

Curved lines - sense of flow within -associated with soft things. Straight lines –

Curved lines - sense of flow within -associated with soft things. Straight lines – hard, dynamic

COLOUR Refers to specific hues.

COLOUR Refers to specific hues.

 • Colours Suggest Emotions How do the following colours make you feel? Red:

• Colours Suggest Emotions How do the following colours make you feel? Red: _________ Blue: _________ Yellow: ________ Purple: ________ Orange: _________ Black: _________ Green: _________

 • Colours Create Focus • Warm colours pop forward • Cool colours regress

• Colours Create Focus • Warm colours pop forward • Cool colours regress • Vibrant colours attract • Muted colours regress

 • Colours Create Contrast

• Colours Create Contrast

Create Focus

Create Focus

Colour creates mood

Colour creates mood

TEXTURE Surface quality, either tactile or visual. Texture can be real or implied by

TEXTURE Surface quality, either tactile or visual. Texture can be real or implied by different uses of media. It is the degree of roughness or smoothness in objects.

Creates a Sensory Experience

Creates a Sensory Experience

Adds realism and depth

Adds realism and depth

Creates Mood

Creates Mood

Portrays Emotion

Portrays Emotion

SHAPE A 2 -dimensional line with no form or thickness. Shapes are flat and

SHAPE A 2 -dimensional line with no form or thickness. Shapes are flat and can be grouped into two categories, geometric and organic.

Organic Geometric

Organic Geometric

Creates Form

Creates Form

 • Shows depth

• Shows depth

FORM A 3 -dimensional object having volume and thickness. It is the illusion of

FORM A 3 -dimensional object having volume and thickness. It is the illusion of a 3 -D effect that can be implied with the use of light and shading techniques. Form can be viewed from many angles.

Creates Depth

Creates Depth

Creates Realism

Creates Realism

VALUE Sometimes combined with color, value describes the lightness (tint) or darkness (shade) of

VALUE Sometimes combined with color, value describes the lightness (tint) or darkness (shade) of a color. Allows for the visual effect of Form.

Creates Contrast

Creates Contrast

Creates Realism

Creates Realism

SPACE The use of space and room in a piece of art. Positive space

SPACE The use of space and room in a piece of art. Positive space is the space taken up by objects. Negative space is the distance between objects.

Creates Emotion

Creates Emotion

Principles The Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the elements of design.

Principles The Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the elements of design. The way in which the principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work.

EMPHASIS Emphasis (also called focal point) is where the focus is concentrated through design

EMPHASIS Emphasis (also called focal point) is where the focus is concentrated through design principles or meaning. It makes an element or object in a work stand out. To use emphasis in an artwork is to attract the viewer's eyes to a place of special importance in an artwork.

Richard Doyle – “The Fairy Queen Takes an Airy Drive” 1870

Richard Doyle – “The Fairy Queen Takes an Airy Drive” 1870

John William Waterhouse – “Boreas” 1902

John William Waterhouse – “Boreas” 1902

BALANCE Balance is arranging elements so that no one part of a work overpowers,

BALANCE Balance is arranging elements so that no one part of a work overpowers, or seems heavier than any other part. Two different kinds of balance are symmetrical and asymmetrical. Symmetrical (or formal) balance is when both sides of an artwork, if split down the middle, appear to be the same.

Andrew Wyeth – “Christina’s World” 1948

Andrew Wyeth – “Christina’s World” 1948

Gustav Klimt – “The Tree of Life” 1909

Gustav Klimt – “The Tree of Life” 1909

UNITY HARMONY The quality of wholeness or oneness that is achieved through the effective

UNITY HARMONY The quality of wholeness or oneness that is achieved through the effective use of the elements and principles of art.

Paul Ranson - “Apple Tree with Red Fruit” 1902

Paul Ranson - “Apple Tree with Red Fruit” 1902

VARIETY CONTRAST The quality or state of having different forms or types. The differences

VARIETY CONTRAST The quality or state of having different forms or types. The differences which give a design visual and conceptual interest: notably use of contrast, emphasis, difference in size and color.

Salvador Dali – “Landscape with Butterflies” 1958

Salvador Dali – “Landscape with Butterflies” 1958

Vincent van Gogh – “Café Terrace at Night” 1888

Vincent van Gogh – “Café Terrace at Night” 1888

MOVEMENT Action, or alternatively, the path the viewer's eye follows throughout an artwork.

MOVEMENT Action, or alternatively, the path the viewer's eye follows throughout an artwork.

Vincent van Gogh – “Mulberry Tree” 1889

Vincent van Gogh – “Mulberry Tree” 1889

Joseph Mallord William Turner – “Snow Storm” 1812

Joseph Mallord William Turner – “Snow Storm” 1812

PATTERN RHYTHM Pattern and rhythm is showing consistency with colors or lines. It is

PATTERN RHYTHM Pattern and rhythm is showing consistency with colors or lines. It is indicating movement by the repetition of elements. Rhythm can make an artwork seem active.

Patrick Raymond – “Rhythm 2”

Patrick Raymond – “Rhythm 2”

Oliver Ray – “The Dancers”

Oliver Ray – “The Dancers”