Electrification v The Concept Electrify Everything Decarbonize Electricity

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Electrification v The Concept: Electrify Everything, Decarbonize Electricity, DISTRIBUTE v The Challenges: Resiliency, Security,

Electrification v The Concept: Electrify Everything, Decarbonize Electricity, DISTRIBUTE v The Challenges: Resiliency, Security, Equity v The Opportunities v Transportation v Buildings v Peripherals

Electrification: Concept v Decarbonization = phase out fossil fuels v Viable, affordable clean electricity

Electrification: Concept v Decarbonization = phase out fossil fuels v Viable, affordable clean electricity is greater reality than other non-fossil options, so … v Clean Up Electricity v Electrify everything

Electrification v NREL 2017 v Key tech incl v Light and heavy duty vehicles

Electrification v NREL 2017 v Key tech incl v Light and heavy duty vehicles and buses v Air source heat pumps v Heat pump water heaters

Electrification

Electrification

Electrification: Challenges v Supply and Demand trajectories v Resiliency v Security v Equity v

Electrification: Challenges v Supply and Demand trajectories v Resiliency v Security v Equity v Transmission before storage

Electrification: Distributed v If one were to design the grid today … v Distributed

Electrification: Distributed v If one were to design the grid today … v Distributed systems are more resilient v They are potentially much more secure v They can contribute to greater equity v Ownership matters for ALL the above v Plus universal economic development v Enough load growth to go round

Electrification: take-aways (NREL) v Multiple pathways, but don’t have to have all answers NOW

Electrification: take-aways (NREL) v Multiple pathways, but don’t have to have all answers NOW (80% rule) v Electrification = doubling of electrical generation, but 2. 6% growth rate slightly LESS than 1980 -2000 growth rate v Renewables, NGCC, transmission, storage … “Despite the large growth in total electricity consumption and the associated increase in peak load, flexibility in incremental load (and opportunities for load shifting) serves to drive down the peak-to-average load ratio. In other words, the hourly load shape becomes smoother or less “peaky, ” and as a result, new generation resources are built largely for serving energy as opposed to meeting peak load requirements, increasing the overall efficiency of power system operation. ”

Transportation: US’s Largest Greenhouse Gas Sector

Transportation: US’s Largest Greenhouse Gas Sector

EVs: A win-win v Good for the Environment v Good for Customer’s pocketbook v

EVs: A win-win v Good for the Environment v Good for Customer’s pocketbook v Good for Utilities

Cleaner over Time v As Electricity becomes cleaner, so does your car

Cleaner over Time v As Electricity becomes cleaner, so does your car

Save on Fuel Costs

Save on Fuel Costs

Save on Maintenance

Save on Maintenance

Eventually, Save on Upfront Costs

Eventually, Save on Upfront Costs

EVs: Good for the Utilities v Load Growth v Proper incentives and market signals

EVs: Good for the Utilities v Load Growth v Proper incentives and market signals can ensure charging happens outside of grid peak v Timing of charging is very important to avoid need for additional buildout of grid

Time Your Charging

Time Your Charging

Set Rates to Encourage EV Adoption and Off-Peak Charging

Set Rates to Encourage EV Adoption and Off-Peak Charging

Local Options v Alliant Energy – Time of Day Pricing v 50% Discount on

Local Options v Alliant Energy – Time of Day Pricing v 50% Discount on energy cost during offpeak v 40% Premium on energy cost during peak v Peak is 7 am to 8 pm v Mi. Energy – EV Charging Rate v Separate Submeter

Local Options

Local Options

Possible Decarbonization Strategy

Possible Decarbonization Strategy

Does it Pay? v Study focused on 4 areas: Oakland CA, Houston TX, Providence

Does it Pay? v Study focused on 4 areas: Oakland CA, Houston TX, Providence RI and Chicago IL v In each case, all-electric homes were cheaper on a 15 -year basis – For NEW homes

Does it Pay? v Home Power Magazine example: v 1600 sf home in Maine

Does it Pay? v Home Power Magazine example: v 1600 sf home in Maine – colder than Decorah v All-electric v Net-Zero v Minisplit Heat Pump v 6. 8 k. W solar

Does it Pay? v Remodel/Retrofit was usually cost effective if a Heat-Pump replaced an

Does it Pay? v Remodel/Retrofit was usually cost effective if a Heat-Pump replaced an A/C unit at the end of its useful life v Not typically cost effective to replace an exiting, working AC unit

Does it Pay? v Remodel/Retrofit was cost effective for Propane and Fuel Oil Customers

Does it Pay? v Remodel/Retrofit was cost effective for Propane and Fuel Oil Customers v Conversion to electric does work best for energy-efficient homes. Tight, wellinsulated homes need less energy to heat.

Load Flexibility and Monitoring v You can monitor all your electric use. v Water

Load Flexibility and Monitoring v You can monitor all your electric use. v Water heating especially can be timed to coincide with low prices, or on-site solar consumption