- Slides: 58
Settling Ancient Egypt Most Egyptians settled along the Nile River. The Nile provides farmable soil from when it flooded, water for bathing/drinking/etc. , fish, ducks, geese, and papyrus. They could water their plants with fresh water to keep their fields fertile. The Egyptians did not have to worry about fighting many enemies because they were protected on 3 sides by deserts and they had plenty of farmland did not have to conquer others to get more. + river flooded predictably rich soil near river protected by deserts plenty of resources relying on a river dry environment have to irrigate
Physiographic Features of Egypt
Map of Egypt’s Physiographic Features
Nubian Desert The Nubian Desert is located in northeast Africa, between the Nile River and the Red Sea. It is an approximately 97, 000 square mile region of the Sahara Desert. Primarily a sandstone plateau, this arid (dry) region has numerous wadis, or dry watercourses, which fill with water that flows to the Nile during periods of heavy rainfall. The ancient Kushites mined copper and gold from this desert, and traded these metals to Egypt for linen and grain.
NILE DELTA The delta of the Nile River is a triangle shaped region located north of Cairo, in northeastern Egypt. Originally, as many as seven branches of the Nile wound through the delta. The delta contains sixty percent of Egypt’s cultivated land (farmland), large areas of marshy wetlands, and shallow lakes. During ancient times, the Egyptians took advantage of the region’s rich soil, gentle winds, and level landscape to develop an extremely productive agricultural system.
ARABIAN DESERT The Arabian Desert is the eastern desert of Egypt. It runs from the Nile River in the west to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez in the east. The desert is mountainous and rutted by deep, dry riverbeds. The ancient Egyptians used its abundant quarries of granite, feldspar, and other materials for many of their building projects.
NILE RIVER The Nile River is the longest river in the world, stretching 4, 160 miles. It flows northward from its headstream in Central Africa to its delta on the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile runs through parts of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Zaire. At six different places along the Nile, crystalline rocks form cataracts, or stretches of rapids and waterfalls that are not navigable. According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, Egypt was “the gift of the Nile” because its waters supported large scale agriculture, made transportation easier, and provided a variety of edible plants and animals.
MEDITERRANEAN SEA The Mediterranean Sea is the world’s largest inland sea. Surrounded by Europe, Africa, and Asia, it covers an area approximately of nine hundred and sixty-five thousand square miles. The Mediterranean Sea connects with the Atlantic Ocean and the Black Sea by way of the Aegean Sea. The shores of the sea are mainly mountainous. Many species of fish, sponges, and coral are abundant in the sea. The ancient Egyptians were originally afraid to sail on the Mediterranean, and so they relied on traders from other lands to bring them goods from Anatolia (Turkey) and Canaan. Eventually, the Egyptians got over their fear and sailed the Mediterranean Sea doing their own trading.
LIBYAN DESERT The Libyan Desert is the northeastern part of Africa’s Sahara Desert, the largest desert in the world. The Libyan Desert covers parts of southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya, and northwestern Sudan. The region consists primarily of sand dunes, course, stony plains, and plateaus of bare rock. Although its hot, dry climate is harsher and more forbidding than that of Egypt’s eastern deserts, the oases of this region were known in ancient times for their wines and agricultural products.
PARTS of EGYPT UPPER EGYPT LOWER EGYPT • southern Egypt • northern Egypt • over 500 miles long • It is the Nile Delta • first cataract northward • 100 miles long but very to the Nile Delta wide
Unification 1) Which Egyptian king united Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt and which part of Egypt was he from? Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt and he was from Upper Egypt 2) What was the title given to the king/ruler of Egypt? The king/ruler of Egypt was known as the “Pharaoh” 3) What did the Egyptians believe their ruler was? The Egyptians believed their ruler was a god 4) What were the two responsibilities of the pharaoh? keep Egyptian society in order protect Egypt from its enemies 5) Ancient Egypt was ruled by over thirty different dynasties. What is a dynasty? A dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family
KINGDOMS Dates Prehistoric Egypt Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom 3700 – 2700 BCE 2686 – 2181 BCE 2055 – 1650 BCE 1570 – 1070 BCE Age of Pyramids Period of Reunification Egypt’s Golden Age • Built the Great Pyramids • Became strong • Became a again world power • Achievements by in literature, art conquering and architecture others Nickname Important Achievements • Irrigation • Formed Government • Hieroglyphs
Great Pyramid of Khufu
Pyramid of Khafre
Other Buildings with the Pyramids
A mastaba is a bench shaped mound tomb built for the burial of early Egyptian pharaohs The Great Pyramid at Giza’s base covers 13 acres and the pyramid rises 450 feet into the air. It is 30 times larger then the Empire State building The Sphinx is a massive statue of a lion with the head of a pharaoh Temples, chapels, other tombs, massive walls, and smaller pyramids can be found at the pyramid site
The Pyramid Texts have been a source of great information about Egyptian rulers and religion Pyramids are considered earthquake proof because their corner stones have ball and socket joints that allowed them to expand contract with movement A stone gets to the pyramid site by: *being placed on a raft and floated down the Nile to the site *moved on rolling logs called sledges to the pyramid *brought up ramps to be positioned on the pyramid
The pyramids were built by ordinary citizens as part of their tax payment to the government Pyramid building was stopped because it was expensive, it took a lot of time, and the pyramids did not keep the pharaoh safe in death
RELIGION and MUMMIFICATION
1) Mummification is when all of the water is taken out of the body of a dead person and then the body is embalmed to protect it from decay.
2) The priests were responsible for the mummification process because the process was getting the dead person ready for the afterlife where the gods were and only the priests could communicate with the gods.
3) Items were placed in the tomb to ensure that the person would continue to have and enjoy the good things of this life in the afterlife, such as, statues, food and drink, jewelry, clothes, games, gold and other riches.
4) The death of an Egyptian was important because the Egyptians believed in an afterlife where the dead person’s soul would go to meet back up with its body and continue its life. If the soul and body did not reunite then life stopped.
SIMULATION http: //www. bbc. co. uk/history/ancient/egyptians/la unch_gms_mummy_maker. shtml
SIMULATION http: //www. bbc. co. uk/history/ancient/egyptians /launch_gms_pyramid_builder. shtml
EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS A stone was found near the Nile River by French troops in the city of Rosetta, Egypt in 1799. This stone had the same short story written on it in Greek, in Egyptian Demotic (the popular language of Egypt at the time), and in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Since the year 300 or so, no one in the world remembered how to read the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. However, in 1822, Jean Francois Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone and allowed modern scholars to read and understand all of the hieroglyphic messages left to us from the ancient Egyptians. Since the discovery of and deciphering of the Rosetta Stone, there has been a great interest in ancient Egyptian writing. Egyptian hieroglyphics, holy writing, is a picture-based language. Egyptians started using hieroglyphics around 3000 BCE, and writing soon became a well-developed craft. Scribes (Egyptian writers and teachers) were held in high esteem and given great importance. Scribes wrote everyday messages on papyrus, a type of paper made from the papyrus plant growing by the Nile. Very important information was carved into stone so that it would last forever. Scribes kept records of supplies and taxes, wrote letters and messages, designed the inscriptions carved into tombs and wrote manuals on just about anything. They worked in temples, markets, army barracks, government offices or anywhere their skills were needed.
JEAN FRANCOIS CHAMPOLLION
Pictorial symbols represented specific sounds. What made this system confusing was that often the same symbol also represented entire words. For example, the symbol meant either the letters “c” or “k” or the word “basket”. Hieroglyphics are written in rows, and originally they were read from right to left. Scribes were often talented designers and paid attention to how the entire text appeared. Because of this, the scribe would sometimes write the symbols in a row (from top to bottom, bottom to top or left to right) or even stack the hieroglyphs. Finished inscriptions looked very decorative and were colorful. But there are common clues in hieroglyphic writing. Symbols of animals or people are always facing in the direction of the beginning of the row or stack, and each row or stack of symbols is separated by a line drawn underneath the writing. Names of the pharaohs are enclosed in a cartouche, an oval with a line at the end indicating the person’s royal stature. In reading hieroglyphic text, a cartouche is easily recognized. It was believed that this nameplate would protect the person or site. In ancient Egypt, a cartouche was attached to the coffin of the dead pharaoh and his tomb. The ancient Egyptians believed that you had to have your name written down somewhere to be protected so that you would not disappear when you died.
picture based holy writing of Ancient Egypt stone that had the same story written on it in three different languages – Greek, Demotic, Hieroglyphs It allowed hieroglyphs to be deciphered the Rosetta Stone and allowed us to understand hieroglyphs official record keepers and writers in Ancient Egypt paper made from the reed papyrus plant and was used for everyday messages and information what important information was carved in to keep forever names written in an oval with a line at the end of it to indicate a person’s royal stature, like the pharaoh
• It is a picture symbol language • Symbols can stand for words or sounds • It can be written right to left or left to right or top to bottom or bottom to top or stacked • It is read by animals or people symbols always face in the beginning direction for reading • Hieroglyphs were written in color • Each row or stack is separated by a line drawn underneath of it • Names of pharaohs were written in a cartouche
EGYPTIAN DAILY LIFE
• Most wore white clothing, jewelry and cosmetics • Lived in mud brick homes along the Nile River and had very little furniture/possessions • Relied on the Nile River • Worshipped many gods and saw the pharaoh as a god • Several different social classes with the Pharaoh at the top and slaves at the bottom with very little chance for advancement • Most were farmers growing wheat and barley and eating very little meat • Majority couldn’t read or write or go to school • Most died young, were married at an early age and women had rights • Medical treatment consisted of medicine from
EGYPT and KUSH
EGYPT and KUSH 1) Kush was southeast of Egypt 2) Other names for Kush were: Nubia = gold Aethiopia = land of burned faces 3) Kush was a trade center 4)
5) Egypt protected its trade routes by invading and conquering Kush several times to protect their trade routes 6) Egypt at the end of the new Kingdom was unable to control parts of its empire, so the Kushites rose up and conquered the Egyptians 7) Piye 8) Built and repaired temples and monuments Supported artists and craftspeople
9) The Assyrians defeat the Kushites and take control of Egypt.
ANCIENT EGYPT’S DECLINE • Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) reign of not maintaining Egypt’s land not defending Egypt. Also he made his people worship one god caused resentment and unrest • Priests became powerful and supported by the government • Drained from large scale building and maintenance projects
• Weakened by wars • Series of weak pharaohs • Army of mercenaries – foreign soldiers • Inferior technology – still doing things the way they had for over 3000 years • Constantly threatened by their rivals