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NUTRIENTS • Eggs are a nutrient dense food and contain essential amino acids as well as many vitamins and minerals. • They are quick and easy to prepare for a nutritious meal or contribute nutrients to food products.
• EGGS HAVE: • High quality protein – contain all essential amino acids • Vitamins –minerals • Only missing Vitamin is C • Could be said that they are high cholesterol food
FUNCTIONS OF EGGS
EMULSIFYING AGENTS Food: Mayonnaise hollandaise • An emulsion is a mixture that forms when you combine liquids that do not ordinarily mix • To keep the liquids from separating you need an emulsifying agent • Egg yolk is an excellent emulsifying agent. The yolk surrounds the oil droplets to keep them suspended
Food: Cakes, meringues, mousse, souffle • Foams are used to add air to foods • When you beat air into egg whites, many air cells form • As the beating continues, the cells become smaller and more numerous as a result the foam thickens FOAMS – INCORPORATING AIR
SOFT PEAK STAGE
STIFF PEAK STAGE - MERINGUE
THICKENER • Heat causes egg proteins to thicken (coagulate) • Foods - sauces, custards, and puddings
BINDING AGENT • Eggs act to hold ingredients together • Meatloaf is an example of eggs used in this way
INTERFERING AGENT • Frozen desserts like ice cream stay creamy because eggs inhibit the formation of large ice crystals which would ruin the texture of the dessert
STRUCTURE • Eggs form the structure of many baked goods.
COATING • Eggs are used to help a coating adhere to a food
FLAVORING Eggs add flavor to many foods
EGGS ADD A GOLDEN COLOR TO BAKED GOODS COLOR
How many ways to cook an egg • Traditionally it is thought that a CHEF HAT or TOQUE has one hundred pleats, each one representing a different way of preparing an egg • A chef’s skill is often judged by how well he can cook a simple omelet or fried egg
1. Avoid excessive temperatures 2. Avoid excessive cooking time
Cooking Methods – whole eggs For Large Egg Boiled Soft-cooked yolk 4 to 5 minutes For perfect cooking, start with eggs that don't have any visible cracks Medium-cooked yolk 6 minutes Hard-cooked yolk 17 minutes To get perfectly peeled hardcooked eggs, use eggs that are at least 3 to 5 days. Bring your eggs to room temperature before cooking. Gently place the eggs in a single layer in a pan with enough cold water to cover eggs completely (approximately by 1 inch). As soon as the water reaches a rapid boil, remove pan from heat and cover egg pan tightly with a lid.
Omelet Poached Bring the poaching liquid to a boil and then reduce to a simmer before adding the eggs (bubbles should not break the surface). When you poach eggs, try adding a little vinegar and salt to the water. Try creating a gentle whirlpool in the simmering water and slip your egg into the middle of that. Don't disturb the egg once you have put it in the water The proper pan is important for successful omelet making. For a 2 or 3 egg omelet, an 8 -inch skillet is the best size. It should be shallow with slopping sides to make it easy to slide the finished omelet out. Always prepare several individual omelets, rather than one large omelet. Water, not milk, is recommended for omelet egg mixtures.
Devilled Fried Use as fresh eggs as possible Use butter to cook eggs Use non stick pan Note: many states do not permit sunny side or undercooked eggs Extremely fresh eggs are not recommended when making hardboiled eggs. They are very difficult to peel. This is the best use for eggs nearing their expiration date. To help center the yolks in the eggs, the night before the eggs are to be cooked (approximately 12 hours), store your eggs on their sides in the refrigerator. Seal the egg carton with a piece of tape and turn on its side to center the yolks.
Microwave EGGS MICRO-COOKED IN THEIR SHELLS WILL EXPLODE! Omelets, scrambled eggs and poached eggs micro-cook well on full power (high). Always use a wooden pick or tip of a knife to break the yolk membrane of an unbeaten egg before microcooking to allow the steam to escape. Covering cooking containers with a lid, plastic wrap or wax paper encourages more even cooking. Scrambled The secret to successfully scrambling eggs is slow cooking. A rubber spatula does a good job of moving the eggs. Always remove scrambled eggs from the heat when they are almost set but still appear shiny and a bit underdone.
Egg grades are based on the shape of the yolk and the amounts of thick and thin whites. Grade AA egg Before they are sold, eggs are graded. This used to be done by holding the egg over a bright light so you could see through the shell. This process was called “candling”. Grade A egg The egg will lose quality as it ages. The older an egg gets, the flatter the yolk and thinner the whites.
A spoiled egg has a shiny shell and floats in water. It is only AFTER you crack open the egg that it smells bad, and by that time you may have added the egg to your other ingredients. That would be TOO LATE! If you suspect that an egg may be spoiled, use this water test first. A fresh egg has a domed yolk (not flattened). There is plenty of thick egg white (notice both the thick and thin whites in the picture) and the whites are translucent (see-thru).
Some recipes call just for the egg whites, while others call only for the yolks. When separating the two parts, be careful not to break the yolk. If a yolk does break and gets into the white, use the sharp edge of an empty shell to scoop the yolk out of the whites. An “egg separator” utensil such as this one can be purchased by those who have difficulty separating eggs.
Egg whites start out being “slimy”. As they are beaten, air is added. The whites turn from pale yellow to white in color and increase in “volume”. The more volume…the better. You should follow as many rules as possible for… A. Eggs should be at room temperature B. Don’t get any yolk mixed in with the whites C. Use a smaller deep bowl, rather than a larger shallow one D. Use a copper bowl E. Make sure eggs are at least 3 days old F. No grease residue allowed! (none on beaters, bowl, etc. )
EGGS USED FOR HARDCOOKING MUST BE AT LEAST 3 DAYS OLD! In eggs fresher than 3 days old, the outer membrane adheres to the shell during the cooking process. When you try to peel the egg, chunks of egg white cling to the shell, and are removed when the egg is peeled. What a mess!
Place the egg on it’s pointed end, and spin it like a toy top. A hard-cooked egg will spin, but a raw egg will topple over immediately! (The heavy yolk wobbles back and forth inside, causing the egg to topple over. )
You cannot add egg yolks directly to hot mixtures or the egg will cook instantly and cause lumps! You must first “warm” the yolks. Begin by slowly adding the hot mixture to the beaten yolks while stirring the yolks constantly. Then reverse the procedure, adding the warmed yolks to the hot mixture. This process of warming the yolks first is called…
A “meringue” is basically a mixture of beaten egg whites and sugar. Although there are several types, the most common use of meringue is as a topping for pies. If the oven temperature is too high, the meringue will shrivel and shrink back from the edges of the crust. Too low of temperature causes the meringue to be dry. If too much sugar is beaten into the egg whites, yellow liquid “beads” will appear on the baked and cooled meringue. This is called “weeping”. It is an undesirable quality…measure carefully!
You were probably using an aluminum bowl or aluminum beaters, or perhaps your nickel or chrome plated beaters have a nick on the finish. Egg whites exposed to aluminum causes them to turn gray in color! Were you using a copper bowl that had traces of some sort of acid present…like cream of tartar or lemon juice? The metal copper in combination with acid causes egg whites to turn a greenish color!
1. Check eggs for cracks. Cover with cold water. 5. Cut eggs in half lengthwise and remove yolks. 2. Bring water to justunder-boiling. Time for 10 minutes. 6. Place yolks in a shallow dish, such as a pie plate. 3. Immediately cool eggs. Overcooking allows the iron in the yolk to reach the outside of the yolk and leave a green ring around the yolk. 4. Remove shells. 7. Thoroughly mash yolks with a fork. 8. Moisten with mayonnaise. Add mustard and seasonings to taste. 9. Fill hollows of egg whites with the yolk mixture. Garnish as desired. Paprika is a popular garnish…adding color and sweetness.
1. Select a skillet with sloping sides and a lid. Non-stick surfaces such as teflon are ideal. 5. If you are adding fillings such as diced ham and grated cheese, place those fillings on only ½ of the egg mixture. Adding the lid at this time will help heat the filling. 2. Beat whole eggs and seasonings. Usually 2 or 3 eggs are used. 6. Using a spatula/turner, carefully lift the unfilled side of the cooked egg mixture and fold it in half over the filled side of the omelet. Continue cooking ‘til filling is completely done. 3. Melt butter in skillet (even if teflon) and add beaten eggs. 7. Carefully slide the omelet out of the skillet and onto a plate. 4. Carefully lift edges of cooked eggs, allowing uncooked mixture to run underneath. 8. Serve this “french omelet” plain or with condiments. A “puffy” omelet is one in which stiffly beaten egg whites are folded into egg yolks. It starts cooking on the stovetop and finishes in the oven. It is not filled, but often served with sauce.
A “custard” is any soft, egg-based dish. Unsweetened ones can be served as main or side dishes, while sweet custards are served for dessert. Real men don’t eat quiche! The delicate flavors of this custard-based dish are often not appreciated by the “meat and potatoes” crowd. Served as a main dish for breakfast or lunch, common quiche fillings include ham, crumbled bacon, sausage, swiss cheese, and vegetables. Pumpkin pie and baked custard cups are two favorite dessert custards. These custard cups are set in a pan of water for baking. The water moderates the baking temperature. Use the knife test to check a custard for doneness. Insert the knife halfway between the center and the edge of the dish. If the knife comes out clean…the custard is done.
Are you looking for a challenge? Perhaps you should try making a souffle’. Served as a main or side dish, or sweetened and served as dessert…the key ingredient of any souffle’ are the beaten egg whites that are carefully folded in. The voluminous egg whites cause the souffle’ to rise, but even a slight vibration or temperature change may cause it to “fall”! A traditional hollandaise is a mild egg, butter, and lemon sauce that requires constant stirring. It is served over green vegetables or “eggs benedict”. Shown on the right, this consists of an English muffin topped with canadian bacon, poached egg, and sauce. This “high hat” souffle is baked in a straight sided dish. It rises above the edge of the dish and obtains a crown-effect.