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Educational Technology Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching
Chapter Objectives l Definitions of educational technology l Identifying the component parts of a computer system l Functions of a given systems device l Classifying computer software l Describing the contributions of educational technologists l Classifying educational technology products
Technology in Education: Concepts and Definitions Educational Technology has no agreed upon definition.
“Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instrument, machines, and devices…. most (educators) will defer to technology as computers” -- Muffoletto(1994)-p. 5 Integrating Education Technology into Teaching (IETIT)
“Only about a decade ago, a history of technology in education since 1920 placed the emphasis on radio and television, with computers as an afterthought. ” --Cuban, 1986 (IETIT) p. 5
However, Saettler (1990) urges “The historical function of educational technology is a process rather than a product. ”
Any useful definition of educational technology, therefore, must focus on the process of applying tools for educational purposes, and the materials used.
In education, the combination of process and product merges instructional procedures with instructional tools.
Technology in Education as Media and Audiovisual Communications
l Audiovisual movement: ways of delivering information that could be used as alternatives to lectures and books. l Audiovisual communications: the “branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process. ” (Saettler, IETIE, p 6) l AECT- Association for Ed. Commo. and Technology.
Technology in Education as Instructional Systems
l 1960 s and 1970 s l Human and non-human resources ( teachers and media). l Systematic approach to designing, developing, and delivering instruction matched to carefully identified needs. l International Society for Performance Improvement. l Validating and creating instruction.
Technology in Education as Vocational Training Tools
l Technology in Education: 1. School learning prepares students for the world of work. 2. Vocational training can be a practical means of teaching. l ITEA (International Technology Education Association).
Technology in Education as Computers and Computer-based Systems
l Instructional and supportive applications of computers. l Computers began to be used in classrooms in 1960 s until 1990 and was known as educational computing. l By the mid-1990 s, educational computing became known as educational technology. l ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education) holds the following views:
Approaches to Technology in Education
An emphasis on Computer Systems Computers as media are becoming more complex and more capable. l Computer systems are subsuming other forms of media. l The perceived complexity of computer-based systems has made it more difficult for educators to effectively integrate software and l
Background on Computer -based Educational Technology
What’s a Computer? ? l Hardware Providing the Electronic Capability l Software Communicating with the Hardware l Any electromechanical device that accepts input, processes input and produces output.
Software in a Computer System l Systems Software ( Types of Operating Systems) l Applications Software (used for Education, Entertainment, or Edutainment)
Systems Software (Types of Operating Systems) l Unix l Ms-DOS l Apple Dos, Pro. DOS l Macintosh DOS, System 7 l Windows 95
Applications Software for Education l Tool Software: 1. Word Processing 2. Spreadsheets 3. Database Management 4. Integrated Packages 5. Graphics Software 6. Communications Software 7. Other Tools
Applications Software for Education( cont. ) l Programming Software: 1. BASIC 2. Logo 3. FORTRAN 4. COBOL, SNOBOL 5. C 6. Pascal 7. PL/1
Applications Software for Education( cont. ) l Courseware: 1. Tutorial 2. Drill & Practice 3. Simulation 4. Instructional Games 5. Problem Solving
Hardware: Providing the Electronic Capability 1. Input functions: • • • Keyboard Mouse Joystick and game paddle Bar-code reader Scanner Touch screen and light pen
Hardware: Providing the Electronic Capability (cont. ) 2. Output Functions • Printers • Monitors 3. Input and Output Functions • Disk drives
The CPU’s Step 1. The controller gets an instruction from the system’s internal memory and puts it in a register. Step 2. The controller directs the ALU to do necessary computations. Step 3. The controller gets the result from the register and stores it once again in internal memory.
CPU Central Processing Unit l ALU : stands for Arithmetic/Logic Unit l Control Unit: directs the activities of the whole system.
The Internal and External Memory and Communication Functions l The internal memory functions: A limited amount of space is arranged inside the computer for storage of instructions. For example: RAM and ROM. l The external memory functions: External storage devices can store larger quantities of information. For Example: Hard Disks and CD-ROM.
The Internal and External Memory and Communications Functions l The communications function is optional, but it is vital for communicating with other systems. For example: Modem and Fax.
Software: Communicating with the Hardware Programming Languages: Low-Level languages (Machine and Assembly). l High-Level languages (Java, Cobol, VC++ and Fortran ). l
Types of Software l Systems Software Acts as a visible interface between the machine and the user. l Applications Software Programs written to do tasks, such as word processing or drawing pictures.
Software Design Step 1. Analyzing the problem Step 2. Developing the algorithm Step 3. Coding Step 4. Testing Step 5. Revising and Debugging
Types of Computer Systems l Personal Computers l Mini and Mainframe Computers l Supercomputers – Cost , the number of users that can be supported, size, speed, and storage capacity distinguish between these.
The Developments During the Period before Microcomputer l IBM 1500 system in universities and l Stanford University and the CCC l Control Data Corporation (CDC) and the PLATO System l Brigham Young University and the TICCIT System l Computerized instructional management systems
The “Microcomputer Revolution” in Education l The Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) and the software publishing movement. l Micro. SIFT, EPIE, and other courseware evaluation efforts. l Courseware authoring activities.
The “Microcomputer Revolution” in Education (cont. ) l The Computer Literacy Movement l Logo and Problem-Solving l The emergence of integrated learning systems.
What Have We learned from the Past ? l Direct technology resources to specific problems and needs l Anticipate and plan for change l Separate fad from fact
Current Types of Educational Technology Systems
Standalone Personal Computers l Portable units (PDAs) l Workstations l Labs
Networked Stations: From LANs to MANs l “Networks are for sharing”(Kee 1994), and this sharing was designed to make computing activities more efficient and cost-effective. l A network centralizes resources and cuts down on handling of individual disks.
Types of LANs l Physical design
Types of LANs (Cont. ) l Physical design
Types of LANs (Cont. ) l Physical design
Types of LANs (Cont. ) l Function (transmission method or protocol) * Token ring method * Ethernet method
Three kinds of cable for connecting LANs l Coaxial cable: Designed to transfer signals with minimal interference. l Twisted pair cable: An inexpensive way of handling ARCnet, Ethernet, and token ring connections. l Fiber optic cable: Allow networks to send large amounts of information at high speeds.
Current Applications of Educational Technology Systems
Instructional Technology Applications: --Instructional software --Interactive video-based materials --Courses through distance learning – Productivity Tools: --Prepare print instructional materials --Keep records and analyze data --Prepare and make instructional and informative presentations --Organize time and materials
– Tools for Students: -- Writing assignments -- Helping with research -- Assisting with learning tasks in various content areas -- Developing products and presentations.
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