Education and Gender in Norway HERBERT ZOGLOWEK University

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„Education and Gender in Norway“ HERBERT ZOGLOWEK, University in Tromsø Norwegian Arctic University

„Education and Gender in Norway“ HERBERT ZOGLOWEK, University in Tromsø Norwegian Arctic University

„Norway is usually seen as a virtual forerunner and exemplary on the front of

„Norway is usually seen as a virtual forerunner and exemplary on the front of ‚gender equality‘ “ „Gender equality is no longer the big issue…“

Gender in Norwegian Society 1860 – Women were allowed to work in school 1913

Gender in Norwegian Society 1860 – Women were allowed to work in school 1913 – Women received the general right to vote 1976 – Women were officially allowed to play soccer within the NFA 1978 – Norway appointed as the first country an Equality Attorney (Ombudswoman) – Act on gender equality 1993 – First female bishop in Norway

Gender in Norwegian Society Since the 80 s the proportion of femal ministers was

Gender in Norwegian Society Since the 80 s the proportion of femal ministers was and is about 50 % Ø Women has joined up with men in various positions in working life but Ø Women still earn 15% less than men Ø Women still take care of child and women almost exclusively take the legal parental leave Ø

Act on gender equality (9. Juni 1978) The same opportunities for both sexes in

Act on gender equality (9. Juni 1978) The same opportunities for both sexes in society, in the family, in education and in professional work are expressly highlighted. In addition it is particularly emphasized that this law is aimed to improve the position of women in society.

Education act and syllabus 1732 – First Education Act 1827 – New Education Act

Education act and syllabus 1732 – First Education Act 1827 – New Education Act 1959 – First common Education Act 1969 – Extension of compulsary education attendance till nine year: the same education for all 1974 – Syllabus: Gender equality as a content 1987 – Syllabus: Idea of gender equality as an education principle 1996 – Actionplan ”Gender equality in School”

Action plan ”Gender equality in School” Ø Ø Ø Ø Equality conducive learning atmosphere

Action plan ”Gender equality in School” Ø Ø Ø Ø Equality conducive learning atmosphere Gender balance on choice of subject and profession Equilibrium in teacher staff Development of gender identity in primary school Differences at marks and grades Differences at early school leaving Genderspecific bullying and sexual victimization

Prioritization of objectives in primary school (Støren, u. a. 2010)

Prioritization of objectives in primary school (Støren, u. a. 2010)

What are the gender-related projects / priorities that have been worked on in the

What are the gender-related projects / priorities that have been worked on in the past year? (in %) (Støren, u. a. 2010) Increasing the motivation to read and improvement of reading skills among boys 72 Raising awareness of training options and highlighting gender-related, non-traditional choices 22 Motivation for sciences, especially for girls 22 Prevention of gender-specific mobbing 23 Equilibrium between men and women within the teaching staff 25 Equilibrium between men and women within leadership positions 5

Women bastion School Primary School Ø Ø Ø Head mistress 52 % Positionen of

Women bastion School Primary School Ø Ø Ø Head mistress 52 % Positionen of leadership 63 % Women teacher 73 % Secondary School 36, 5 % 47 % 48, 6 %

“The biggest danger to equality is the myth that we have it” (Yssen, 2010).

“The biggest danger to equality is the myth that we have it” (Yssen, 2010).

Kroppsøving – Physical Education Boys > 1920 < 1950 1964 < 1987 Girls military

Kroppsøving – Physical Education Boys > 1920 < 1950 1964 < 1987 Girls military gymnastics - - Military gymnastics dance gymnastics Games and physical education conviviality first common schoolbook Sports, health, lifestyle, friluftsliv

1978 – Erste Fussballmeisterschaft der Frauen 1979 – Gleichstellungsombud - Keine Geschlechterdiskriminierung in der

1978 – Erste Fussballmeisterschaft der Frauen 1979 – Gleichstellungsombud - Keine Geschlechterdiskriminierung in der Reklame 1980 – Änderung im Gesetz zur Namensgebung 1981 – G. H. Brundtland 1 weibliche Ministerpräsidentin und Parteinführerin 1983 – Frauen dürfen zum Wehrdienst - AP: Quotenregelung: 40% Frauen in allen Parteiorganen, incl. Regierung 1984 – Grete Waitz gewinnt die erste olympische Goldmedaille im Marathonlauf 1987 – das ”Babyjahr” wird von 18 auf 42 Monate erhöht 1988 – Alle öffentlichen Organe sollen 40% Frauen haben 1990 – Grundgesetzänderung zugunsten weiblicher Thronfolge 1991 – Neues Scheidungsgesetz 1992 – Erziehungsarbeit ergibt pro Jahr 3 Pensionspunkte 1993 – Mehr weibliche als männliche Studenten legen das Staatsexamen ab (51%) 1994 – Einführung des ”Vaterjahres” 4 Wochen des Babyjahres darf der Vater nehmen – Gesetz zum Schutz gegen mobbing und sexuelle Übergriffe am Arbeitsplatz - Liv Arnesen geht als 1. Frau allein mit Skiern zum Südpol 1999 – Eldbjørg Løwer erste weibliche Verteidigungsministerin