Economic Systems and Development 1 Chapter Objective Discuss

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Economic Systems and Development 1

Economic Systems and Development 1

Chapter Objective • Discuss the decline of centrally planned economic systems • Describe mixed

Chapter Objective • Discuss the decline of centrally planned economic systems • Describe mixed economies and privatization • Explain how a market economy functions and the role of each primary feature • Identify ways to measure economic development • Describe economic transition and the remaining obstacles to companies 2

Economic Systems Centrally Planned Mixed Market Government ownership of Mostly private (individual economic resources

Economic Systems Centrally Planned Mixed Market Government ownership of Mostly private (individual economic resources and or business) ownership of state planning economic resources Government and private ownership of economic resoures split rather evenly 3

Centrally Planned Economy Government owns most land, factories and other economic resources and plans

Centrally Planned Economy Government owns most land, factories and other economic resources and plans nearly all economic activity Ø Welfare of the group is paramount Ø Economic and social equality is the goal Asia Central Europe Eastern Europe Latin America Russia (1917) China (1949) Cuba (1959) Ø “Communist” system is needed 4

Decline of Central Planning Central planning failed to: ê Create economic value ê Provide

Decline of Central Planning Central planning failed to: ê Create economic value ê Provide incentives ê Achieve rapid growth ê Satisfy consumer needs 5

Focus on China Socialism with Chinese characteristics: Challenges ahead: ü Communist after civil war

Focus on China Socialism with Chinese characteristics: Challenges ahead: ü Communist after civil war ended in 1949 ü Political problems and social unrest ü Agricultural reforms began in 1979 ü Unemployment and migrant labor ü Township and Village Enterprises legal in 1984 ü Eventual(? ) reunification with Taiwan ü Aggressive reform since that time ü Advanced entrepreneurial and management skills 6

Quick Study 1 1 - What is meant by economic system? Explain the relation

Quick Study 1 1 - What is meant by economic system? Explain the relation between culture and economics. 2 - What is a centrally planned economy? Describe the link between central planning and communism. 3 - Identify several factors that contributed to the decline of central planned economies. 7

Mixed Economy Government and private parties share ownership of land, factories and other economic

Mixed Economy Government and private parties share ownership of land, factories and other economic resources rather evenly Noble goals: But stagnant: é Low unemployment and poverty ê State-owned businesses uncompetitive é Steady economic growth ê Prices and taxes higher, living standards mixed é Equitable distribution of wealth ê Privatized state firms to boost competitiveness 8

Market Economy Private parties (individuals or businesses) own vast majority of land, factories and

Market Economy Private parties (individuals or businesses) own vast majority of land, factories and other economic resources Supply Demand Quantity of a good or service that producers are willing to provide at a specific selling price Quantity of a good or service that buyers are willing to purchase at a specific selling price 9

Laissez-Faire Economics Less government interference in commerce Free choice • Consumers choose freely from

Laissez-Faire Economics Less government interference in commerce Free choice • Consumers choose freely from alternative purchase options Free enterprise • Firms decide which products to sell and markets to enter Price flexibility • Most prices follow the forces of supply and demand 10

Government’s Role in a Market Economy Ø Enforce antitrust laws Ø Preserve property rights

Government’s Role in a Market Economy Ø Enforce antitrust laws Ø Preserve property rights Ø Provide fiscal and monetary stability Ø Preserve political stability 11

Enforce Antitrust Laws Encourages development of industries with as many competing businesses as market

Enforce Antitrust Laws Encourages development of industries with as many competing businesses as market will sustain ü Keeps consumer prices in check ü Prevents growth-stunting monopolies 12

Preserve Property Rights Encourages risk-taking by people and business as claims to assets and

Preserve Property Rights Encourages risk-taking by people and business as claims to assets and future earnings are protected ü Market economy needs strong property rights ü Entrepreneurs start new businesses ü Firms create new technologies and products 13

Provide Fiscal & Monetary Stability Encourages commerce in a nation because it improves its

Provide Fiscal & Monetary Stability Encourages commerce in a nation because it improves its reputation as a place to do business ü Fiscal policies (taxation, government spending) ü Monetary policies (money supply, interest rates) ü Reduces overall uncertainty ü Improves business forecasts ü Holds inflation and unemployment low 14

Preserve Political Stability Encourages businesses to engage in activities without fear of disrupted future

Preserve Political Stability Encourages businesses to engage in activities without fear of disrupted future operations ü Promotes economic growth generally ü Reduces worries of terrorism / kidnapping ü Improves chances for business survival 15

Economic Freedom & Wealth 16

Economic Freedom & Wealth 16

Quick Study 2 1 - What is a mixed economy? Explain the origin of

Quick Study 2 1 - What is a mixed economy? Explain the origin of mixed economies. 2 - Explain why the mixed-economy ideal is in decline and the key role of privatization? 3 - Define what is the meant by market economy and identify its three required feature? 4 - Explain government role in a market economy. What is the relation between economic freedom and standard of living? 17

Economic Development Economic well-being of one nation’s people relative to another nation’s people è

Economic Development Economic well-being of one nation’s people relative to another nation’s people è Economic output (agricultural, industrial, service) è Infrastructure (communications, transportation, power) è People (physical health, education level) Productivity is key Ratio of outputs (that created) to inputs (resources used to create output) 18

National Production GDP is the value of goods and services that a nation produces

National Production GDP is the value of goods and services that a nation produces during a one-year period (GNP adds international activities) Potential problems Purchasing power parity • Overlooks certain transactions • Ignores economic growth rates • Averages disguise regions • May ignore purchasing power Relative ability of two countries’ currencies to buy the same “basket” of goods in those two countries 19

National Wealth at PPP Country United States Switzerland Canada Australia United Kingdom Japan Czech

National Wealth at PPP Country United States Switzerland Canada Australia United Kingdom Japan Czech Republic Hungary Mexico Turkey GDP per Capita (U. S. $) PPP Estimate of GDP per Capita (U. S. = 100) 36, 100 37, 400 23, 100 20, 700 26, 400 31, 300 6, 800 6, 400 6, 300 2, 600 36, 100 30, 500 30, 300 28, 100 28, 000 27, 000 15, 100 13, 900 9, 200 6, 400 20

Quick Study 3 1 - What is meant by economic development? Explain how productivity

Quick Study 3 1 - What is meant by economic development? Explain how productivity (and information technology) helps improve standards of living. 2 -Describe three measures of economic development and list their advantages and disadvantages. 3 - Explain the concept of purchasing power parity. What are its implications for a nation's relative income per capita? 21

Human Development Index 22

Human Development Index 22

Classifying Countries Developed Country Highly industrialized, highly efficient and whose people enjoy a high

Classifying Countries Developed Country Highly industrialized, highly efficient and whose people enjoy a high quality of life Emerging Market Newly industrialized countries plus those with potential to be newly industrialized Newly Industrialized Recently greater national production and Country exports from industrial operations Developing Country Poor infrastructure and extremely low personal income 23

Quick Study 4 1 - Explain the value of the Human Development Index (HDI)

Quick Study 4 1 - Explain the value of the Human Development Index (HDI) in measuring a nation's level of development. 2 - How are communicable diseases devastating human and economic development in some poor nations? 3 - Identify the main characteristics of: (a) developed countries, (b) newly industrialized countries, and (c) developing countries. 4 - Name three countries that fall into each of the three country classifications. 24

Economic Transition Fundamental reorganization of an economy and the creation of new free-market institutions

Economic Transition Fundamental reorganization of an economy and the creation of new free-market institutions Reforms include: v Reduce budget deficits and expand credit v Allow the “price mechanism” to determine prices and economic activity v Legalize private firms and privatize state-owned assets within a property rights framework v Remove barriers to trade and investment and eliminate currency controls v Ensure social-welfare system to ease transition 25

Obstacles to Transition Lack of managerial expertise Capital shortage Environmental degradation Cultural differences 26

Obstacles to Transition Lack of managerial expertise Capital shortage Environmental degradation Cultural differences 26

Focus on Russia q Operated under a staunchly communist system for about 75 years

Focus on Russia q Operated under a staunchly communist system for about 75 years q Underwent a rough transition of simultaneous economic and political reform q But government tax revenues are increasing and foreign investment is returning q Challenges include developing managerial talent and fostering political and social stability 27

Quick Study 4 1 - What are several of the reform measures involved in

Quick Study 4 1 - What are several of the reform measures involved in undergoing economic transition to a market economy? 2 - Describe some of the remaining obstacles to businesses in transitional economies. 3 - Explain Russia’s experience with economic transition. What are some tips for people wishing to do business in Russia? 28

Chapter Summary • This chapter introduces different economic systems and examines the effect of

Chapter Summary • This chapter introduces different economic systems and examines the effect of economics on international business. Business transactions depend on a nation’s economic system— the structure and processes that a country uses to allocate its resources and conduct its commercial activities. A centrally planned economy is a system in which land, factories, and other economic resources are owned by the government, which plans nearly all economic activity. In a mixed economy, ownership of land, factories, and other economic resources are more equally split between private and government. In a market economy, the majority of land, factories, and other economic resources are privately owned. The forces of supply and demand determine who produces what and the prices of products, labor, and capital. Development can be measured using four alternative methods: the volume of a nation’s annual production using such figures as gross domestic product and gross national product; purchasing power parity—the relative ability of two countries’ currencies to buy the same “basket” of goods in those two countries; and a nation’s level of human development—a measure of the extent to which a government satisfies the broader needs of its people. Economic transition creates new free-market institutions. 29

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