Ecology Notes Biology Ecology Notes Outline I Ecology

  • Slides: 26
Download presentation
Ecology Notes: Biology

Ecology Notes: Biology

Ecology Notes Outline I. Ecology a. Biotic factors b. Abiotic factors II. Biosphere 1.

Ecology Notes Outline I. Ecology a. Biotic factors b. Abiotic factors II. Biosphere 1. organism 2. population 3. community 4. ecosystem Vocab terrestrial, marine niche, habitat III. Energy Draw and label pyramid 1. Autotroph 2. Heterotroph Vocab herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, scavenger, decomposer IV. Symbiosis mutualism, parasitism, commensalism V. Succession

What is ecology? l The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

What is ecology? l The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

Biotic Factors: l Living organisms that inhabit an environment • Ex: frog, fish, plankton

Biotic Factors: l Living organisms that inhabit an environment • Ex: frog, fish, plankton

Abiotic Factors: l Nonliving parts of the environment • Ex: wind, temperature, water, light,

Abiotic Factors: l Nonliving parts of the environment • Ex: wind, temperature, water, light, soil • Both abiotic and biotic can be limiting factors

Biosphere: l Portion of Earth that supports life

Biosphere: l Portion of Earth that supports life

Broken down into levels: • Organism: one living thing ex. lion • Population: group

Broken down into levels: • Organism: one living thing ex. lion • Population: group of organisms of the same species living together ex. A den of lions

Broken down into levels: • Community: collection of interacting populations ex. Lions and hyenas

Broken down into levels: • Community: collection of interacting populations ex. Lions and hyenas • Ecosystem: organisms and their physical surroundings ex. Lions, hyenas, water, sun

Habitats: l Terrestrial: land l Aquatic: water • marine: salt water l l Niche:

Habitats: l Terrestrial: land l Aquatic: water • marine: salt water l l Niche: role a species plays in a community Habitat: where an organism lives, zip code

Obtaining energy from food: l l Autotrophic: producers (photosynthesis) Heterotrophic: consumers (eat) or decomposers

Obtaining energy from food: l l Autotrophic: producers (photosynthesis) Heterotrophic: consumers (eat) or decomposers

Energy Pyramids l l l Show trophic levels (distance from the sun in terms

Energy Pyramids l l l Show trophic levels (distance from the sun in terms of feeding) Show energy is lost further from sun More energy at lower levels Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers

Obtaining energy from food: l Herbivores: • eat plants l (giraffe) Carnivores • kill

Obtaining energy from food: l Herbivores: • eat plants l (giraffe) Carnivores • kill and eat other animals (lion) l Scavengers: • eat already dead animals (vulture)

Obtaining energy from food: l Omnivores: • eat both plants and animals (human, grizzly

Obtaining energy from food: l Omnivores: • eat both plants and animals (human, grizzly bear) l Decomposers: • absorb nutrients from dead organisms (mushroom, bacteria)

Obtaining energy from food: Food chains and webs show feeding relationships: grass mouse hawk

Obtaining energy from food: Food chains and webs show feeding relationships: grass mouse hawk

Food webs Chihuahuan raven Honey mesquite (pods eaten by beetles) Pronghorn antelope Gambel quail

Food webs Chihuahuan raven Honey mesquite (pods eaten by beetles) Pronghorn antelope Gambel quail Jackrabbit Long-tail weasel Desert tortoise Prickly pear cactus Coyote (top carnivore) Roadrunner Kangaroo rat (seed eater) ants Texas horned lizard Red spotted toad Mexican whiptail lizard Mojave rattlesnake

Symbiosis: l Close relationship between 2 organisms

Symbiosis: l Close relationship between 2 organisms

Symbiosis: l Mutualism • both species benefit • ex: bacteria in intestines

Symbiosis: l Mutualism • both species benefit • ex: bacteria in intestines

Mutualism l The relationship between these the sea anemone and the clownfish has been

Mutualism l The relationship between these the sea anemone and the clownfish has been a much studied topic. As far as is known, the fish is able to produce a special mucus that causes the anemone not to release its stings. It is also believed that the movements of the fish inform the anemone of its identity. In return for the anemone's protection, the fish brings scraps to it, and lures larger fish into the anemone's tentacles.

Symbiosis: l Parasitism: • one organism benefits, the other is harmed • ex: tick

Symbiosis: l Parasitism: • one organism benefits, the other is harmed • ex: tick on a dog

Symbiosis: l Commensalism: • one organism benefits, the other is neither helped nor harmed

Symbiosis: l Commensalism: • one organism benefits, the other is neither helped nor harmed • ex: spanish moss

Spanish moss is considered an epiphyte-meaning it requires the host (pine tree in this

Spanish moss is considered an epiphyte-meaning it requires the host (pine tree in this case) for mechanical support rather than a source of nutrients or water. The pine tree is neither benefited nor harmed by the presence of the Spanish moss. l

the remora, a sucker-fish, lives in close association with sharks or other larger fish.

the remora, a sucker-fish, lives in close association with sharks or other larger fish. The dorsal fin of the sucker-fish is modified to form a sucker; it uses this to attach itself to the shark; The sucker-fish is small and does not injure (or benefit) the shark, but envoys the shark's protection and lives on the scraps formed as the shark devours its prey; l

Succession: l l Orderly, natural changes that take place in communities of an ecosystem

Succession: l l Orderly, natural changes that take place in communities of an ecosystem Primary succession: takes place on land where no living organisms (volcano) Secondary succession: takes place on land after disruption of life (forest fire) Climax community: stable, mature community, little change in species

Now let’s make ecology pictures! Organism Population Community ecosystem

Now let’s make ecology pictures! Organism Population Community ecosystem