ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystem Community Population • Includes abiotic and biotic factors • Biomes are examples • Includes all the LIVING things • All of one species in one area • Can reproduce with each other
FOOD CHAINS Original source of energy for most chains is the sun 1 st trophic level is producer 2 nd trophic level is primary consumer 2 rd trophic level is secondary consumer Decomposer not shown on chain, but they recycle nutrients Secondary Consumer (bird) Primary Consumer (snail) Producer (grass) Energy is “lost” as you mover “up” the food chain
SYMBIOSIS Mutualism Parasitism Commensalism • n mutualism, BOTH organisms BENEFIT • this is a + / + relationship • The picture shows E. coli, a type of bacteria that live in your intestine. • The bacteria get a place to live; we get the vitamin K they make. This is good for both. • In parasitism, the PARASITE BENEFITS by getting food and shelter from the HOST • This is a + / - relationship • In the example shown, the TICK is the parasite and feeds off of the blood of the human HOST. This is good for the tick, but bad for the human. • In commensalism, one organism BENEFITS while the other is NOT AFFECTED • This is a +/ 0 relationship • The picture above shows orchids living in trees. This is good for the orchid, because it allows the orchid to get sunlight. It doesn't affect the tree, because the orchid doesn't help or hurt it.
PREDATION • Predator EATS Prey • The populations cycle • Predator has lower curve • There can’t be more predators than prey
POPULATION GROWTH EXPONENTIAL GROWTH LOGISTIC GROWTH J-curve S-curve Occurs when unlimited resources are available Occurs because resources are limited Carrying capacity reached
HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH Overpopulation of humans leads to • Destruction of habitats (pollution and/or destroying) • Loss of biodiversity • Introduced species • Outcompete native species
CARBON CYCLE • • Cycling of carbon and oxygen Three main processes • Photosynthesis – plants use carbon dioxide; produce oxygen • Respiration – uses oxygen, produces carbon dioxide (both plants and animals) • Combustion – burning – releases more carbon dioxide Greenhouse Effect • Carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere, making life possible • Increased carbon dioxide can make temperatures rise more • Human activities can lead to GLOBAL WARMING
BE A GOOD STEWARD