ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Ontology

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ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Ontology: The Need for International Coordination NCOR

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Ontology: The Need for International Coordination NCOR Inaugural Oct 27, 2005 Dr. W. Ceusters European Centre for Ontological Research Saarland University, Saarbrücken - Germany

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research

ECO R ECOR’s members & partners European Centre for Ontological Research External members Local

ECO R ECOR’s members & partners European Centre for Ontological Research External members Local members Partners Status Oct 2, 2005

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Goals and objectives • sustained and coordinated

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Goals and objectives • sustained and coordinated collaboration with institutions with proven track record of excellence in ontological research and in the application of ontology to solve concrete problems. • interdisciplinary approach based on philosophical rigour • exchange of research personnel for short research visits • participation in joint projects, • joint supervision of doctoral research, • joint production of software and authorship of research papers • collaborate in seeking funding at national and international levels for ontology-related research and development activities

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Similar Centers • Created: – Interdisciplinary Ontology

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Similar Centers • Created: – Interdisciplinary Ontology forum Japan – NCOR • Considered: – Canadian Centre for Ontological Research – Australasian Ontology Center

ECO Europe: cross-border R coordination is in our genes European Centre for Ontological Research

ECO Europe: cross-border R coordination is in our genes European Centre for Ontological Research • Flanders: a wealth of dialects – About 850 for a population of 6, 000 • Belgium: population: 10, 000 – 3 communities: French, Flemish, German – 3 regions: Flanders, Wallony, Brussels – 6 governments • Europe: – 25 countries – Many more regions, some cross-national • Flanders, Basque country, Occitania, . . .

ECO R European Member States European Centre for Ontological Research

ECO R European Member States European Centre for Ontological Research

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Permanent cross-border awareness • Variations in legislation:

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Permanent cross-border awareness • Variations in legislation: – What is forbidden in one jurisdiction, might be allowed in a second one, and mandatory in a third one. • Variations in culture and habits • Biggest incentive: – No cross-border issue, no money ! • Biggest source of (research) funding: EU • Requirement for EU-funding – Europe-wide problem – Problem cannot be solved by one Member State

ECO Reasons for R coordination in general European Centre for Ontological Research • Avoid

ECO Reasons for R coordination in general European Centre for Ontological Research • Avoid waste of financial resources and efforts – Pro: • Division of labor • Roadmap for future developments – Contra: • Additional overhead • Sharing of resources – But: competition is a good driver for quality • Benchmarking, quality assurance

ECO Coordination needs and R opportunities for Ontology European Centre for Ontological Research •

ECO Coordination needs and R opportunities for Ontology European Centre for Ontological Research • Horizontal – Ontology languages • We asked for one, but did we ask for OWL ? – Terminologies, concept systems, ontologies – The Syntactic Web – Ontology-based applications • Vertical – – Healthcare & Life Sciences Finance Legal Globalisation

ECO Current US GOV e. Health R goals & strategies European Centre for Ontological

ECO Current US GOV e. Health R goals & strategies European Centre for Ontological Research • G 1: Inform Clinical Practice: – S 1. Provide incentives for EHR adoption. – S 2. Reduce risk of EHR investment. – S 3. Promote EHR diffusion in rural and underserved areas. • G 2: Interconnect Clinicians. – S 1. Regional collaborations. – S 2. Develop a national health information network. – S 3. Coordinate federal health information systems. • Goal 3: Personalize Care. – S 1. Encourage use of Personal Health Records. – S 2. Enhance informed consumer choice. – S 3. Promote use of telehealth systems. • Goal 4: Improve Population Health. – S 1. Unify public health surveillance architectures. – S 2. Streamline quality and health status monitoring. – S 3. Accelerate research and dissemination of evidence. US Department of Health and Human Services July 21, 2004

ECO UMLS Semantic Network R European Centre for Ontological Research

ECO UMLS Semantic Network R European Centre for Ontological Research

ECO Main problems with e. Health R European Centre for Ontological Research ‘ontologies’ •

ECO Main problems with e. Health R European Centre for Ontological Research ‘ontologies’ • Internal and external (in)consistency • What do the terms in a terminology stand for ? • ‘meaning is context’ • The biggest defenders are – Those who build them – Those who never studied them • Lobbying for mandatory use

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Terminologies, concept systems, ontologies universals terms particulars

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Terminologies, concept systems, ontologies universals terms particulars concepts ideas in people’s minds

ECO R Current mainstream thinking European Centre for Ontological Research wisdom (- representation) knowledge

ECO R Current mainstream thinking European Centre for Ontological Research wisdom (- representation) knowledge - representation information - representation data - representation Questions not often enough asked: • • What part of our data corresponds with something out there in reality ? What part of reality is not captured by our data, but should because it is relevant ? Reality What is there on the side of the concrete, real entities

ECOThe ultimate e. Health scenario R European Centre for Ontological Research Ontology continuant disorder

ECOThe ultimate e. Health scenario R European Centre for Ontological Research Ontology continuant disorder person CAG repeat EHR Juvenile HD #IUI-1 ‘affects’ #IUI-2 #IUI-3 ‘affects’ #IUI-2 #IUI-1 ‘causes’ #IUI-3 Referent Tracking Database

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research International Virtual Observatory Alliance • development and

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research International Virtual Observatory Alliance • development and deployment of technology to enable international utilization of astronomical archives • Created 2002 • By January 2005: funded participation from 15 countries ($20 million) • Collaborative efforts in: XML data format standards VO Resource Registries VO Resource Metadata VO Query Language Universal Content Descriptions Space-Time Coordinate Metadata unified Data Access Layer standards for spectra and images, unified astronomical Data Models Web Service technologies for the VO.

ECOInternational Federation of Library R Associations and Institutions European Centre for Ontological Research •

ECOInternational Federation of Library R Associations and Institutions European Centre for Ontological Research • 1998: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records – Delineates the functions performed by the bibliographic record wrt various media, applications, and user needs. – Provides a clear precisely stated, and commonly shared understanding of what it is that the bibliographic record aims to provide information about, and what it is that we expect the record to achieve in terms of answering user needs. • May 2005 meeting of the FRBR Review Group: – It is accepted that the FRBR model would benefit from an ontology, and it is acknowledged by the FRBR Review Group that the FRBR/CRM Harmonization Group is going in that direction.

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research IFLA-FRBR entities • Group 1 entities: user

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research IFLA-FRBR entities • Group 1 entities: user interests in intellectual or artistic products – – Work: a distinct intellectual or artistic creation Expression: its intellectual or artistic realization Manifestation: the physical embodiment of an expression of a work Item: a single exemplar of a manifestation • Group 2 entities: are responsible for content, production, . . . , of group 1 entities. – Person: an individual – Corporate body: an organization or group of individuals and/or organizations • Group 3 entities: serve as the subjects of works. – – Concept: an abstract notion or idea Object: a material thing Event: an action or occurrence Place: a location

ECOFood and Agriculture Organization R of the United Nations European Centre for Ontological Research

ECOFood and Agriculture Organization R of the United Nations European Centre for Ontological Research • Established ‘ontologies’: – AGROVOC – Food Safety and Animal Health Ontology – Fishery ontology – Ontology for indexing FAO’s Food, Nutrition and Agriculture (FNA) journal • Many other topics still untouched • Practical implementations of the above not yet realised

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Fisheries Global Information System

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Fisheries Global Information System

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research FIGIS budget issues FAO Council, Rome, 20

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research FIGIS budget issues FAO Council, Rome, 20 - 25 June 2005. Summary Programme of Work and Budget 2006 -07

ECO Recommendations of Committee I of the 11 th UN Congress on Crime Prevention

ECO Recommendations of Committee I of the 11 th UN Congress on Crime Prevention and R Criminal Justice on money laundering (April 2005) European Centre for Ontological Research • Establish mechanisms at national, regional and international level to improve data collection on economic and financial crimes; • Improve the global legal framework to counter economic and financial crimes; • Provide effective technical assistance to developing countries to improve their capacity to confront the problem; • Agree on measures to improve cooperation between government and private sector in preventing such crimes; • Identify effective measures to curb money-laundering in countries where participation in the "formal" financial system is low, including in the areas of research, training, skills development, technical assistance programmes and regional and international cooperation.

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Other topics • Internet (financial) fraud detection

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Other topics • Internet (financial) fraud detection and prevention – Electronic payments • • • V. A. T. in international transactions Freight and transport (Bio-)terrorism ‘Future Force’ Economic development: • The High Level Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, a new independent global initiative, announced it will fight global poverty by focusing on the connection between poverty and the lack of legal protections.

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Non-technical aspects • International legal framework for

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Non-technical aspects • International legal framework for ontology– development: IPR – use: • responsability in case of mistakes • national security • Public involvement • Market driven versus social or cultural well-being • Funding: – combining sources • Cross-nation governmental: national funding for participation in global initiative • Mixed governmental / industry: Inno. Med

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Tasks in international coordination • Identify relevant

ECO R European Centre for Ontological Research Tasks in international coordination • Identify relevant national contact points • Identify relevant international cross-sectorial organisations • Organise planning meetings for – Common research agenda – Promotion • Identify waste of resources by lack of ontology • Identify success cases • Collection and dissemination of information – Policy on what should be disseminated • Provide support for – technical and (pre-)investment studies – Pilot projects implementations • Monitoring of its own functioning

ECO But overall: bring clarity ! R European Centre for Ontological Research This is

ECO But overall: bring clarity ! R European Centre for Ontological Research This is truly. . . an image of “a silver car”