# ECE 476 POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS Lecture 7 Development

- Slides: 40

ECE 476 POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS Lecture 7 Development of Transmission Line Models Professor Tom Overbye Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Announcements l l l For next two lectures read Chapter 5. HW 2 is 4. 10 (positive sequence is the same here as per phase), 4. 18, 4. 19, 4. 23. Use Table A. 4 values to determine the Geometric Mean Radius of the wires (i. e. , the ninth column). Due September 15 in class. “Energy Tour” opportunity on Oct 1 from 9 am to 9 pm. Visit a coal power plant, a coal mine, a wind farm and a bio-diesel processing plant. Sponsored by Students for Environmental Concerns. Cost isn’t finalized, but should be between $10 and $20. Contact Rebecca Marcotte at marcott 1@illinois. edu for more information or to sign up. 1

SDGE Transmission Grid (From CALISO 2009 Transmission Plan) 2

Line Conductors l l Typical transmission lines use multi-strand conductors ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced) conductors are most common. A typical Al. to St. ratio is about 4 to 1. 3

Line Conductors, cont’d l l l Total conductor area is given in circular mils. One circular mil is the area of a circle with a diameter of 0. 001 = 0. 00052 square inches Example: what is the area of a solid, 1” diameter circular wire? Answer: 1000 kcmil (kilo circular mils) Because conductors are stranded, the equivalent radius must be provided by the manufacturer. In tables this value is known as the GMR and is usually expressed in feet. 4

Line Resistance 5

Line Resistance, cont’d l l l Because ac current tends to flow towards the surface of a conductor, the resistance of a line at 60 Hz is slightly higher than at dc. Resistivity and hence line resistance increase as conductor temperature increases (changes is about 8% between 25 C and 50 C) Because ACSR conductors are stranded, actual resistance, inductance and capacitance needs to be determined from tables. 6

Variation in Line Resistance Example 7

Review of Electric Fields 8

Gauss’s Law Example Similar to Ampere’s Circuital law, Gauss’s Law is most useful for cases with symmetry. Example: Calculate D about an infinitely long wire that has a charge density of q coulombs/meter. Since D comes radially out integrate over the cylinder bounding the wire 9

Electric Fields The electric field, E, is related to the electric flux density, D, by D = E where E = electric field (volts/m) = permittivity in farads/m (F/m) = o r o = permittivity of free space (8. 854 10 -12 F/m) r = relative permittivity or the dielectric constant ( 1 for dry air, 2 to 6 for most dielectrics) 10

Voltage Difference 11

Voltage Difference, cont’d 12

Multi-Conductor Case 13

Multi-Conductor Case, cont’d 14

Absolute Voltage Defined 15

Three Conductor Case A C B Assume we have three infinitely long conductors, A, B, & C, each with radius r and distance D from the other two conductors. Assume charge densities such that qa + qb + qc = 0 16

Line Capacitance 17

Line Capacitance, cont’d 18

Bundled Conductor Capacitance 19

Line Capacitance, cont’d 20

Line Capacitance Example Calculate the per phase capacitance and susceptance of a balanced 3 , 60 Hz, transmission line with horizontal phase spacing of 10 m using three conductor bundling with a spacing between conductors in the bundle of 0. 3 m. Assume the line is uniformly transposed and the conductors have a a 1 cm radius. 21

Line Capacitance Example, cont’d 22

ACSR Table Data (Similar to Table A. 4) GMR is equivalent to r’ Inductance and Capacitance assume a Dm of 1 ft. 23

ACSR Data, cont’d Term from table assuming a one foot spacing Term independent of conductor with Dm in feet. 24

ACSR Data, Cont. Term from table assuming a one foot spacing Term independent of conductor with Dm in feet. 25

Dove Example 26

Additional Transmission Topics l l Multi-circuit lines: Multiple lines often share a common transmission right-of-way. This DOES cause mutual inductance and capacitance, but is often ignored in system analysis. Cables: There about 3000 miles of underground ac cables in U. S. Cables are primarily used in urban areas. In a cable the conductors are tightly spaced, (< 1 ft) with oil impregnated paper commonly used to provide insulation – – inductance is lower capacitance is higher, limiting cable length 27

Additional Transmission topics l l Ground wires: Transmission lines are usually protected from lightning strikes with a ground wire. This topmost wire (or wires) helps to attenuate the transient voltages/currents that arise during a lighting strike. The ground wire is typically grounded at each pole. Corona discharge: Due to high electric fields around lines, the air molecules become ionized. This causes a crackling sound and may cause the line to glow! 28

Additional Transmission topics l l Shunt conductance: Usually ignored. A small current may flow through contaminants on insulators. DC Transmission: Because of the large fixed cost necessary to convert ac to dc and then back to ac, dc transmission is only practical for several specialized applications – – – long distance overhead power transfer (> 400 miles) long cable power transfer such as underwater providing an asynchronous means of joining different power systems (such as the Eastern and Western grids). 29

Tree Trimming: Before 30

Tree Trimming: After 31

Transmission Line Models l l Previous lectures have covered how to calculate the distributed inductance, capacitance and resistance of transmission lines. In this section we will use these distributed parameters to develop the transmission line models used in power system analysis. 32

Transmission Line Equivalent Circuit Our current model of a transmission line is shown below Units on z and y are per unit length! 33

Derivation of V, I Relationships 34

Setting up a Second Order Equation 35

V, I Relationships, cont’d 36

Equation for Voltage 37

Real Hyperbolic Functions For real x the cosh and sinh functions have the following form: 38

Complex Hyperbolic Functions For x = + j the cosh and sinh functions have the following form 39

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