# ECE 476 Power System Analysis Lecture 3 Complex

- Slides: 26

ECE 476 Power System Analysis Lecture 3: Complex Power, Three-Phase Prof. Tom Overbye Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign overbye@illinois. edu

Announcements • Please read Chapters 1 and 2 • HW 1 is 2. 9, 22, 28, 32; due Thursday 9/3 • • Will be turned in (for other homework we may have an in -class quiz) For Problem 2. 32 you need to use the Power. World Software. You can download the software and cases at the below link; get version 18 (August 20, 2015) http: //www. powerworld. com/gloversarma. asp

RL Circuit Example 2

Complex Power 3

Complex Power, cont’d 4

Complex Power (Note: S is a complex number but not a phasor) 5

Complex Power, cont’d 6

Conservation of Power • At every node (bus) in the system – – Sum of real power into node must equal zero Sum of reactive power into node must equal zero • This is a direct consequence of Kirchhoff’s current law, which states that the total current into each node must equal zero. – Conservation of power follows since S = VI* 7

Conversation of Power Example Earlier we found I = 20 -6. 9 amps 8

Power Consumption in Devices 9

Example First solve basic circuit 10

Example, cont’d Now additional reactive power load and resolve 11

Power System Notation Power system components are usually shown as “one-line diagrams. ” Previous circuit redrawn Generators are Transmission lines shown as circles are shown as a single line Arrows are used to show loads 12

Reactive Compensation Key idea of reactive compensation is to supply reactive power locally. In the previous example this can be done by adding a 16 Mvar capacitor at the load Compensated circuit is identical to first example with just real power load 13

Reactive Compensation, cont’d • Reactive compensation decreased the line flow from 564 Amps to 400 Amps. This has advantages – – – Lines losses, which are equal to I 2 R decrease Lower current allows utility to use small wires, or alternatively, supply more load over the same wires Voltage drop on the line is less • Reactive compensation is used extensively by utilities • Capacitors can be used to “correct” a load’s power factor to an arbitrary value. 14

Power Factor Correction Example 15

Distribution System Capacitors 16

Power. World Simulator Overview • Used for power system analysis and visualization – Runs in Windows • Download free 42 bus educational version at – http: //www. powerworld. com/gloversarma. asp • Image on right shows the problem 2. 32 power system (case)

Balanced Three-Phase ( ) Systems • A balanced three-phase ( ) system has – – – three voltage sources with equal magnitude, but with an angle shift of 120 equal loads on each phase equal impedance on the lines connecting the generators to the loads • Bulk power systems are almost exclusively 3 • Single-phase is used primarily only in low voltage, low power settings, such as residential and some commercial 18

Balanced 3 -- No Neutral Current 19

Advantages of 3 Power • Can transmit more power for same amount of wire (twice as much as single phase) • Torque produced by 3 machines is constant • Three-phase machines use less material for same power rating • Three-phase machines start more easily than singlephase machines 20

Three-Phase - Wye Connection • There are two ways to connect 3 systems – – Wye (Y) Delta ( ) 21

Wye Connection Line Voltages Vca Vcn Vab -Vbn Van Vbc (α = 0 in this case) Line-to-line voltages are also balanced 22

Wye Connection, cont’d • Define voltage/current across/through device to be phase voltage/current • Define voltage/current across/through lines to be line voltage/current 23

Delta Connection Ica Ib Ibc Ic Iab Ia 24

Three-Phase Example Assume a -connected load is supplied from a 3 13. 8 k. V (L-L) source with Z = 100 20 W 25

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