- Slides: 31
Easter Sunday §The first Sunday after the first full moon after the spring equinox. Why? §Christ’s resurrection. (Question: Who discovered the tomb was empty? )
Pentecost 10 days after Ascension The start of the Christian church.
Sacred Writings • • • The New Testament 1. The 4 Gospels 2. Acts of the Apostles 3. Letters to Churches (Epistles) 4. Revelations
Angel (Matthew), Lion (Mark), Ox (Luke), Eagle (John)
The Gospels: Mark • • • Written ~70 CE? Associated with Paul and Peter. The earliest, shortest gospel. No Nativity. Most of Mark is incorporated in Matthew and Luke.
The Gospels: Matthew • • Written ~80 CE? Apostle, Jewish tax collector Has the Nativity story Has the Sermon on the mount.
The Gospels: Luke • • • Written ~85 CE? Greek, connected to Paul Well educated, a Physician Has the Nativity story Stories of healing the sick
The Gospels: John • • Written ~100 CE? A follower of the apostle John? The “Gnostic” gospel More philosophical.
Acts of the Apostles • Also written by Luke ~70 CE • Chronicles the missionary work of Peter and Paul in the early years of the church. • Emphasizes the Holy Spirit
Epistles • Earliest works of the New Testament • Mostly written by Paul ~ 50 s and 60 s CE • Sent to Christian communities all over the Mediterranean.
Book of Revelations • “John” (not the apostle) ~95 CE • Written on the Isle of Patmos to “The Seven Churches of Asia. ” • Apocalyptic text predicting the imminent end of the world • Rapture Jack Van Impe
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
Constantine • Emperor 315 AD • Made Christianity legal • Gave money for church construction. • Arranged Council of Nicea (present day Turkey) 325 AD
Christianity in 325 AD
Eastern Orthodox vs Western Catholic • Christianity spreads west, Rome became more important than Constantinople • The Bishop of Rome claimed to be head of the whole Church (Pope). • The Pope modified the Nicene Creed by adding “and the Son” • The Patriarch in Constantinople and the Pope in Rome excommunicated each other in 1054. “The Great Schism”
Christianity in 1054 AD
The Crusades • In 1095 Pope Urban declared a “Crusade” to the Holy Land to free it from Muslim Infidel control (so Christian pilgrims could travel there in peace). • Four waves of Crusades took place. • A crusader state was established in Palestine.
The Crusades: 1095 -1289
The Reformation: Martin Luther • 1517 Martin Luther (Germany) led a revolt against the Catholic Church. • Posted 95 Theses on a church door in Wittemberg • Main objection: “Papal Indulgences”
Indulgences • The church was selling forgiveness to the wealthy. “Skip confession, praying, penitence, just pay cash. ”
Translating the Bible • All bibles had to be in Latin. • Martin Luthor translated the bible into German in 1534. • He was condemned as a Heretic and banned from the church.
Protestantism: Main points • Salvation by faith alone. • Studying the bible for oneself in your own language. • Rejection of catholic rituals tradition.
English Reformation: Anglicanism • 1530 s King Henry VIII wanted an anulment of his marriage. • The Pope refused. Henry VIII declared himself the new head of the Church of England (Anglican)
Anglican Church • Still very similar to Catholicism, but does not recognize papal authority. • (In the U. S. it’s called “Episcopal. ”They broke away from Anglican after the American Revolution. )
Anglican Cathedral of St. John the Baptist • St. John’s: Oldest Anglican parish in Canada! (over 300 years) • 1699 a wooden church was built. • 1847 rebuilt in Stone.
Roman Catholic Reformation • Church cleaned up its act in the 1500 s • 1543 Council of Trent: Said souls went to heaven, hell, or purgatory; Prayers to saints and Mary was okay. • 1870 First Vatican Council: Papal Infallibility declared (when the Pope speaks, God protects him from mistakes)
1962 Vatican II Council • 1. Latin was eliminated from the mass. • 2. Altar and priest were turned around to face the congregation. • 3. Priesthood of celibate males upheld.
Catholic Basilica of St. John the Baptist • Corner stone laid in 1841
The Papacy • St. Peter was the first Bishop of Rome. • Francis became the 266 th Pope (Bishop of Rome) last month
St. Peter’s, Vatican (in Rome)