Early Societies in South Asia East Asia 3

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Early Societies in South Asia & East Asia (3) n Foundations of Harappan Society

Early Societies in South Asia & East Asia (3) n Foundations of Harappan Society ~ The Indus River Harappan society & its neighbors, ca. 2000 1 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Societies in South Asia (3) n Foundations of Harappan Society, Dravidian peoples, 30002500

Early Societies in South Asia (3) n Foundations of Harappan Society, Dravidian peoples, 30002500 BCE n Political Organization n n Cultivation of cotton before 5000 BCE, Early cultivation of poultry Decline after 1900 BCE n Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro n n 2 Granary / Palace? at Harappa Layout, public purpose? Broad streets, citadel, pool, sewage Specialized Labor & Trade HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Societies in South Asia (3) n Harappan Society & Culture n Social Distinctions

Early Societies in South Asia (3) n Harappan Society & Culture n Social Distinctions n Fertility Cults n Harappan Decline Reasons for disappearance unclear n n Excessive deforestation, loss of topsoil Earthquakes? Flooding? n n 3 Evidence of unburied dead Disappearance by 1500 BCE Ancient Indus seals HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Societies in South Asia (3) n n n 4 The Indo-European Migrations &

Early Societies in South Asia (3) n n n 4 The Indo-European Migrations & Early Aryan India Aryans, lighter-skinned invaders from the north Dravidians, darker-skinned sedentary inhabitants of Harappa Color Bias Socio-Economic Implications Difficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquest HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Aryan India n n The Aryans & India Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses,

Early Aryan India n n The Aryans & India Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle n n Religious and Literary works: The Vedas n n Sanskrit: sacred tongue Prakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, Bengali Four Vedas, most important Rig Veda n 1, 028 hymns to gods The Vedic Age - Political Organization n 5 Vegetarianism not widespread until many centuries later Chiefdoms: Rajas Early concentration in Punjab, migrations further south n Development of iron metallurgy n Increasing reliance on agriculture Tribal connections evolve into political structures HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Aryan India n n Origins of the Caste System - Varna Origins in Aryan

Aryan India n n Origins of the Caste System - Varna Origins in Aryan domination of Dravidians n n n Jati subsystem of castes n n n 6 Brahmin, Priest Kshatriya, Warrior Vaishya, Merchant Sudra, Commoner Harijan: “Untouchables; Pariahs” Related to urbanization, increasing social and economic complexity Castes & Social Mobility The Development of Patriarchal Society n The Lawbook of Manu n Sati HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Religion in the Vedic Age n n 7 Major deity of Rig Veda: Indra,

Religion in the Vedic Age n n 7 Major deity of Rig Veda: Indra, war god Elaborate ritual sacrifices to gods HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Teachings of the Upanishads n n n n 8 Texts represent blend of Aryan

Teachings of the Upanishads n n n n 8 Texts represent blend of Aryan & Dravidian traditions Composed 800 -400 BCE, some later collections until 13 th century CE Brahman: the Universal Soul Samsara: reincarnation Karma: accounting for incarnations Moksha: mystical ecstasy Relationship to system of Varna HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

The Upanishads “That which is the subtle essence, in it all that exists has

The Upanishads “That which is the subtle essence, in it all that exists has its self. It is the True. It is the Self, and you, Svetaketu, are it. ” - The Upanishads 9 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

The Rig Veda on the Origin of the Castes “The brahmin was his mouth,

The Rig Veda on the Origin of the Castes “The brahmin was his mouth, of both his arms the kshatriya made. His thighs became vaishya, from his feet the shudra was produced. ” - The Hymns of the Rigveda 10 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Society in East Asia: China 11 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Society in East Asia: China 11 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Political Organization in Early China n Early Agricultural Society & the Xia Dynasty n

Political Organization in Early China n Early Agricultural Society & the Xia Dynasty n The Yellow River n n n 3000 Miles: Tibet to the Yellow Sea Deposits fertile, light colored soil Periodic flooding: “China’s sorrow Yangshao Society & Banpo Village The Xia Dynasty The Xia, Shang, & Zhou dynasties, 2200 -256 B. C. E. 12 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early China n Xia ~ C. 2200 BCE Village networks n Hereditary monarchy n

Early China n Xia ~ C. 2200 BCE Village networks n Hereditary monarchy n Flood control Shang n 1766 -1122 BCE Zhou n 1122 -256 BCE n n n The Xia, Shang, & Zhou dynasties, 2200 -256 B. C. E. 13 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Political Organization in Early China n The Shang Dynasty n n n Bronze Metallurgy

Political Organization in Early China n The Shang Dynasty n n n Bronze Metallurgy & Horse-Drawn Chariots Shang Political Organization The Shang Capital at Ao The Shang Capital at Yin Beyond the Yellow River Valley Shang Bronzes 14 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Political Organization in Early China n The Zhou Dynasty n n n The Rise

Political Organization in Early China n The Zhou Dynasty n n n The Rise of the Zhou The Mandate of Heaven Political Organization Weakening of the Zhou Iron Metallurgy China during the Period of the Warring States, 403 -221 B. C. E. 15 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Shang ritual vessels 16 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Shang ritual vessels 16 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Cowries storage vessel with Yaks 17 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Cowries storage vessel with Yaks 17 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Society & Family in Ancient China n The Social Order n n Ruling Elites,

Society & Family in Ancient China n The Social Order n n Ruling Elites, Aristocracy, Merchants & traders, Peasants Daily life n Devotion to family, ancestor veneration Connection of spirit world to physical world n Ritual sacrifices n Father ritual head of family rites Earlier prominence of individual female leaders fades in later Shang, Zhou dynasties n n 18 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Society in East Asia n Sources From the Past: Peasants’ Protest “Large Rats!

Early Society in East Asia n Sources From the Past: Peasants’ Protest “Large Rats! Do not eat our millet. Three years have we had to do with you. And you have not been willing to show any regard for us…” - The Book of Songs 19 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Society in East Asia n Society & Family in Ancient China n Family

Early Society in East Asia n Society & Family in Ancient China n Family & Patriarchy n Veneration of Ancestors “Loving union with wife and children Is like the music of lutes. But it is the accord of brothers That makes happiness and harmony lasting. ” - Book of Songs 20 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Society in East Asia n Early Chinese Writing and Cultural Development n Oracle

Early Society in East Asia n Early Chinese Writing and Cultural Development n Oracle Bones n Bronze Inscriptions Shang Era Oracle bone Second Millennium B. C. E. 21 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Society in East Asia n Early Chinese Writing & Cultural Development n Early

Early Society in East Asia n Early Chinese Writing & Cultural Development n Early Chinese Writing n Oracle Bones n Characters The Evolution of Chinese Characters from the Shang Dynasty to the Present 22 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Early Chinese Writing & Cultural Development n Thought & Literature in Ancient China n

Early Chinese Writing & Cultural Development n Thought & Literature in Ancient China n n n Zhou Literature Book of Changes Book of History Book of Etiquette (Book of Rites) Book of Songs Little survived n n Often written on perishable bamboo strips Many destroyed by Emperor of Qin dynasty in 221 BCE The Book of Songs Destruction of Early Chinese Literature Eastern Zhou bell (Warring States Era) 23 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Nomadic Peoples of Central Asia n Steppe nomads n n n Extensive trade with

Nomadic Peoples of Central Asia n Steppe nomads n n n Extensive trade with sedentary cultures in China Tensions: frequent raiding The Southern Expansion of Chinese Society n n 24 Poor lands for cultivation, extensive herding activities Horses domesticated c. 4000 BCE, bronze metallurgy in 2900 BCE The Yangzi Valley The State of Chu HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller

Key Words & Terms (3) Samsara Karma Moksha Sati Lawbook of Manu Rig Veda

Key Words & Terms (3) Samsara Karma Moksha Sati Lawbook of Manu Rig Veda Upanishads Dravidian Indo-European Aryans Caste n n Xia Dynasty Mandate of Heaven Shang Bronze Age Book of Songs “oracle bones” “Scholar-bureaucrat” Warring States period Mandate of Heaven Yangzi River Zhou dynasty Oracle bones The State of Chu Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Indra Varuna 25 HIST 2321/ IDST 2372 Dr. C. Keller