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Early Greece Preview • Starting Points Map: The Early Greeks • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Minoans and Mycenaeans • Greek City-States • Gods and Heroes
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Main Idea Early Greece The earliest cultures in Greece, the Minoans and the Mycenaeans, were trading societies, but both disappeared and were replaced by Greek city-states. Reading Focus • What were Minoan and Mycenaean cultures like? • What were the common characteristics of Greek city-states? • What role did stories of gods and heroes play in Greek culture?
Minoans and Mycenaeans Many parts of early Greek history are still a mystery, but we do know that two distinct cultures developed in early Greece. The Minoans of Crete • Minoan civilization developed as early as 3000 BC Excavations at Knossos • Much of Minoan life revealed by excavations • Lasted nearly 2, 000 years – Solidly constructed buildings • Minoan ships sailed over Aegean Sea, possibly farther – Private rooms • Colonies established on dozens of Aegean islands – Brightly colored artwork • Ships filled with trade goods sailed back and forth between Crete and her colonies – Basic plumbing – Artwork shows life tied to sea, women as priests, dangerous games
Speculation • Much history of Minoan civilization result of guesswork, speculation – Historians cannot read Minoans’ writing, Linear A. – Does not appear to be related to languages of mainland Greece • Until writing deciphered, most knowledge will come from art, objects Rapid Decline • Minoan civilization fell apart rather suddenly, possibly from disaster. – Large eruption of volcanic island near Crete may have affected worldwide weather patterns. – Damage to Minoan ports, crops may have weakened society • Minoans conquered by warlike Mycenaeans
Mycenaeans The Mycenaean States First Greeks • Mycenaeans built small kingdoms, often fought with each other • Mycenaeans considered first Greeks, spoke form of Greek language • Name comes from fortress, Mycenae • Earliest kingdoms owed much to Minoans Minoan Influences • Mycenaeans traded with Minoans, copied writing Mycenaean Differences • Became great traders • Society dominated by intense competition, frequent warfare, powerful kings • Trade increased after they conquered Crete • Kings taxed trade, farming to build palaces, high walls
Mycenaean Strengths and Mycenaean Strength • To show off strength, Mycenaeans built great monuments like Lion’s Gate Downfall • Kings’ constant quest for power, glory inspired legends • Most famous, story of Trojan War • War supposedly involved early Greeks, led by Mycenae, who fought powerful city called Troy, in what is now Turkey • War may not have happened, but ruins of city believed to be Troy found Downfall • War played part in end of Mycenaean civilization, as did drought, famine • By end of 1100 s BC, Mycenaean cities mostly in ruins; dark age followed • Greek civilization almost disappeared
Compare and Contrast How were Minoan and Mycenaean cultures similar? How were they different? Answer(s): similar—both were trading states; different—Mycenaean writing has been translated; Mycenaeans had frequent wars
Greek City-States A new type of society emerged in Greece in the 800 s BC. The society was centered on the polis, or city-state. Each polis developed independently, with its own form of government, laws and customs. Life in the Polis • Polis, center of daily life, culture • Greeks fiercely loyal to their polis • Did not think of selves as Greeks, but as residents of their particular citystate Infrastructure • Polis built around high area, called acropolis • Acropolis used as fortification • Included temples, ceremonial spaces • Agora, public marketplace, below Other Attributes • Shops, houses, temples near agora • Gymnasium, athletes’ training grounds, public bath • Sturdy wall for defense surrounded polis
Political Systems of Greek City Each major polis had a different political -States system that developed over time. • Corinth, an oligarchy, ruled by a few individuals • Athens, birthplace of democracy • Sparta, one of mightiest city-states, but least typical
The Might of Sparta Beginnings • Sparta located on Peloponnesus, large peninsula of southern Greece • First surrounded by smaller towns; over time Sparta seized control of towns • After conquering town of Messenia, Spartans made Messenians into helots Helots • Helots were state slaves given to Spartan citizens to work on farms so citizens did not have to perform manual labor. • As result, Spartan citizens free to spend time training for war War • Spartan emphasis on war not due to fondness for fighting, but as way to keep order in society • Helots outnumbered Spartans seven to one, kept in check by strong army
Militaristic State To support their military lifestyle, the Spartans demanded strength and toughness. All babies were examined after birth and unhealthy children were left in the wild to die. Combat School • Boys taught physical, mental toughness by mothers until age 7 • Entered combat school to toughen for hardships of being soldier • At age 20 boys became hoplites, foot soldiers; remained in army 10 years before becoming citizens Women in Society • Unusual among Greek city-states • Women played important role • Trained in gymnastics for physical fitness, to bear strong children • Women had right to own property, unlike women in most of Greece Sparta was led by two kings who served as military commanders. Decision-making was largely left to an elected council of elders.
Identify Cause and Effect Why did Sparta’s political system develop? Answer(s): Because of Sparta's emphasis on war; it was led politically by two kings who served as military commanders.
Gods and Heroes Legends and Myths The Gods of Olympus • Much of what is known about early Greece comes from studying Greeks’ legends, myths • Ancient Greeks believed in hundreds of gods, goddesses; each governed one aspect of nature, life • Myths, stories told to explain natural phenomena, events of distant past • Example: Apollo controlled movement of sun; sister Artemis did same for moon • Greek myths explained where they came from, how they should live, cope with uncertain world • Greeks believed gods would protect them, city-states in exchange for proper rituals, sacrifices
Mount Olympus • 12 gods, goddesses were particularly influential in Greek lives • These 12 lived together on Mount Olympus, highest mountain in Greece • Olympian gods thought to have great power, though not perfect • Myths say gods flawed, often unpredictable—loved, hated, argued, made mistakes, got jealous, played tricks on each other Worship Sacred Locations • Almost all Greeks worshipped same gods • Delphi sacred to all Greeks— priestesses of Apollo were thought to receive visions of future • Each polis claimed one god, goddess as special protector • Example: Athens sacred to Athena • Some locations considered sacred by all Greeks • Olympia—every four years Greeks assembled there for Olympic Games; athletes competed against each other to honor gods
Myths about Heroes Hercules and Theseus • Greeks also told myths about heroes, used to teach Greeks where they came from, what kind of people they should be • Some heroes, like Hercules, who had godlike strength, renowned through all Greece • Others, like Theseus, who killed Minotaur of Crete, famous chiefly in home cities Lessons • Heroes killed monsters, made discoveries, founded cities, talked with gods on equal terms • Examples inspired individuals, whole city-states, to achieve great things • Hubris, great pride, brought many heroes to tragic ends • Served as lessons not to overstretch abilities
Describe What role did mythology play in Greek culture? Answer(s): explained natural phenomena; taught Greeks where they came from and how to act
The Classical Age Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Athenian Democracy • The Persian Wars • Map: Persian Wars • The Golden Age of Athens • Faces of History: Pericles • The Peloponnesian War • Map: Greece Before the Peloponnesian War • Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of the Peloponnesian War
Main Idea The Classical Age of ancient Greece was marked by great achievements, including the development of democracy, and by ferocious wars. Reading Focus • What were the characteristics of Athenian democracy? • How did the Greeks manage to win the Persian Wars? • What advances were made in the golden age of Athens? • What led to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War?
Athenian Democracy The prosperity of Athens was due in large part to its stable and effective government. That government was the world’s first democracy, a form of government run by the people. Beginnings • Athens, birthplace of democracy • Not always democratic city • First ruled by kings • Later ruled by aristocrats who had money and power Reform • Most Athenians poor, had little power over lives • Gap between rich, poor led to conflict • Official named Draco reformed laws Draconian Laws • Draco thought way to end unrest was through harsh punishment • Belief reflected in Draco’s laws • Harshness of laws worsened dispute between classes
Solon and Peisistratus Revision of Draconian Laws Peisistratus • 590 s BC, lawmaker Solon revised laws again, overturned Draco’s harshest laws • Outlawed debt slavery; tried to reduce poverty by encouraging trade • Allowed all Athenian men to take part in assembly that governed city, serve on juries • Only wealthy men could run for, hold political office • Solon’s laws relieved tension for a time, did not resolve it • Tensions flared again after a few decades • 541 BC, politician Peisistratus took advantage of conflict, seized power • Peisistratus a tyrant • Claimed to rule for good of people • Violent but popular • People liked fact that he pushed aristocrats out, increased trade
Cleisthenes took over Athens after Peisistratus • Reforms set stage for Athenian democracy • Cleisthenes broke up power of noble families – Divided Athens into 10 tribes based on where people lived – Made tribes, not families, social groups, basis for elections – Each tribe elected 50 men to serve on Council of 500, proposed laws – Each tribe elected one general to lead Athenian army
The Nature of Athenian Democracy • As democracy, Athens ruled by the people, but not all people able to take part in government; only about 10 percent of total population • Only free male Athenians over age 20 who had completed military training allowed to vote • Women, immigrants, children, slaves had no role in government Athenian Government • Those allowed to take part in government expected to: – Vote in all elections – Serve in office if elected – Serve on juries – Serve in military during war
Height of Democracy Three Main Bodies • Athenian democracy consisted of three main bodies— • Assembly • Council of 500 • Courts Council of 500 • Created by Cleisthenes • Wrote laws to be voted on by full assembly Assembly • Included everyone eligible to serve in government • All present voted on laws, all important decisions • Called direct democracy Courts • Complex series of courts • Members could number up to 6, 000 • Chosen from the assembly • Heard trials, sentenced criminals
Special Roles Elected Officials Archon • Most governing done by assembly • The archon acted as head of both assembly, Council of 500 • Some elected officials had special roles • Archons elected for term of one year, but could be re-elected many times • Among elected officials, generals who led city in war • Another elected official, the archon • Public servant, could be removed from office, punished if failed to serve people well
Analyze What were the key features of Athenian democracy? Answer(s): direct democracy; only certain men could vote; consisted of assembly, Council of 500, and court system
The Persian Wars In the early 400 s BC, the Greek city-states came into conflict with the vast Persian Empire, a larger, stronger opponent. Causes of the Conflict • Roots of Persian Wars lay in region of Ionia, in what is now Turkey • Ionian city-states founded as Greek colonies, fell under Persian rule, 500 s BC – Ionian Greeks unhappy with Persian rule – Wanted independence – Rebelled, 499 BC Revenge • Ionian Greeks asked fellow Greeks for help • Athens sent aid, ships • Persians put down revolt – Revolt made Persian emperor Darius angry enough to seek revenge – Planned to punish Ionians’ allies, especially Athens, by attacking Greek mainland
First Invasion The First Persian Invasion • 490 BC, Persians set out to fulfill Darius’s plans for revenge • Fleet carrying tens of thousands of Persian troops set out for Greece • Came ashore near town of Marathon, not far from Athens Persian Retreat • Warned in advance, Greeks arrived at Marathon, caught Persians unloading ships, charged in phalanx, tight rectangle formation • Persians counterattacked, more Greeks closed in, Persians retreated Marathon • Legend says Athenian messenger ran from Marathon to Athens after battle to announce Greek victory; died from exhaustion after delivering message • Legend inspired modern marathon, 26 -mile race commemorating dedication, athleticism
Preparations for a Second • Greek victory at Marathon shocked both Greeks, Persians • Athenians could not believe they had defeated stronger foe Invasion • Persians humiliated, furious • Darius planned second invasion, but died before invasion launched • Son Xerxes vowed revenge, continued to plan attack on Greece Xerxes Athenians • 480 BC, 10 years after first invasion, Xerxes set out for Greece • Faced with invasion, Athenians called on other Greek city-states to help fight off Persians • Hundreds of thousands of soldiers, sailors, animals, weapons, supplies • Greek accounts say Persian army so huge took week to cross bridge built into Greece • Athens, bitter rival, agreed to help • Had recently built large navy, took charge of Greek fighting ships • Sparta took charge of Greek armies
Second Invasion and The Greeks worried that they would not have time to prepare their troops for battle. To slow down the Persians, a group of Spartans and Aftermath their allies gathered in a mountain pass at Thermopylae, through which the Persians would pass to get into Greece. The Second Persian Invasion • Spartans held off entire Persian army for several days • Persians shown alternate path through mountains; were able to surround, kill Spartans • Spartans’ sacrifice bought time for Greeks’ defense After Thermopylae • Persians marched south to Athens, attacked, burned city; needed fleet to bring additional supplies • Athenian commander lured fleet into narrow strait • Greek warships cut them to pieces Persian army was no longer a match for the Greeks; and within a year the Greeks had won the Persian Wars.
Sequence What events led to the Greek victory in the Persian Wars? Answer(s): Athens and Sparta allied to fight the Persians; Spartans held off the Persians at Thermopylae, allowing Athens to prepare; Persian supplies were cut off when the Greek fleet destroyed their ships; Spartans led the Greek army to defeat the Persians at Plataea
The Golden Age of Athens As leaders in the Persian Wars, Athens and Sparta became the two most powerful, influential city-states in Greece. After the wars, Athens entered a golden age as the center of Greek culture and politics. Alliance • After Persian Wars city-states banded together to defend each other, punish Persia • Largest, richest of alliance members was Athens Delian League Increased Influence • Alliance’s treasury kept on islands of Delos • Some members resented Athenian dominance • Alliance known as Delian League • Members who tried to quit attacked by league fleet, forced back into alliance • Athens controlled ships, money • League grew in membership, power • League became Athenian empire
Rebuilding Athens A City in Ruins • People wanted to rebuild Athens after Persian Wars • Some money for rebuilding came from within Athens • Substantial amount came from treasury of Delian League Collective Funds to Rebuild • Other members of League not happy Athenians used collective funds to rebuild city, but none powerful enough to stop Athens • Rebuilding began at top, with acropolis, series of grand temples Height of Culture • Grandest temple, Parthenon, dedicated to goddess Athena • Athenians expanded port, built new roads, constructed high walls around city • Rebuilt Athens considered height of Greek culture, sophistication
The Age of Pericles Much of the rebuilding of Athens was due to one man—Pericles, a skilled politician and gifted public speaker. Pericles • 460 s, elected one of Athens’ generals, became Athens’ most influential politician • Great champion of democracy – Introduced payment for those who served in public offices, on juries – Encouraged Athenians to introduce democracy elsewhere Patron of the Arts • Commissioned building Parthenon, other monuments – Hired artists, sculptors to decorate them • Wanted Athens to be most glorious city in Greece – Believed it had best government, noblest people, monuments to prove superiority
Life in the Golden Age Trade brought great wealth to Athens. • Merchants from other parts of world moved to city, bringing own foods, customs • Athens very cosmopolitan as result – Grand festivals, public celebrations, events – Athletic games and city theaters – Athens was the heart of Greek culture
Draw Conclusions What made the 400 s a golden age in Athens? Answer(s): trade brought great wealth; cosmopolitan city; city rebuilt; center of Greek culture and politics
The Peloponnesian War As the leader of the Delian League, Athens was the richest, mightiest polis in Greece. Being rich and mighty brought many powerful rivals, the greatest of which was Sparta, which wanted to end its dominance. Peloponnesian League • Sparta head of Peloponnesian League, allied citystates • Formed 500 s BC, to provide protection, security for members Tension Built • Tensions built between Delian, Peloponnesian Leagues • Mutual fear led to war between Athens, Sparta War • Athens feared military might of another league • Sparta feared loss of trading • 431 BC, the two declared war • Lasted many years
The Course of War in Greece • Initially neither side gained much advantage • Sparta, allies dominated land; Athens, allies dominated sea • Athenians avoided land battles; neither side won more than minor victories Plague and Peace • 430, 429 BC, plague struck Athens, changed course of war • Pericles, Athens’ leader through beginning of war, among dead • After plague, fighting heated up until truce in 421 BC Sparta’s Victory • 415 BC, war broke out again; Sparta took to sea as well as land, destroyed Athenian fleet; Athens surrendered 404 BC • Peloponnesian War almost destroyed Athens; Sparta also exhausted by war
Cycle of Warfare After victory, Sparta’s army tried to act as Greece’s dominant power • Sparta’s wealth, resources badly strained, power worn down • Spartans could not keep control of Greece • City-state of Thebes defeated Sparta, could not maintain control either • Struggle for power led to long cycle of warfare that left all Greece vulnerable to attack • 340 s BC, Macedonia, Greek-speakingdom to north, swept in, took control of all Greece
Identify Cause and Effect What caused the Peloponnesian War? Answer(s): mutual fear; Sparta feared Athens would stop it from trading, Athens feared the military might of the Peloponnesian League
Greek Achievements Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Greek Philosophy • Quick Facts: Greek Philosophy • Greek Literature • Greek Architecture and Art
Main Idea Greek Achievements The ancient Greeks made great achievements in philosophy, literature, art, and architecture that influenced the development of later cultures and ideas. Reading Focus • How did Greek philosophy influence later thinking? • What types of literature did the Greeks create? • What were the aims of Greek art and architecture?
Greek Philosophy Despite their condemnation of Socrates, the people of ancient Greece were great believers in philosophy. The word philosophy itself comes from the Greek word philosophia, meaning “the love of wisdom. ” Background Socrates Broad Concepts • Earliest philosophy traced to 500 s BC • First great Athenian philosopher • Reached height in Athens during 400 s, 300 s BC • Little known of his personal life • Writings give clear picture of Socrates’s thoughts and how he taught • Inspired by greatest philosophers— Socrates, Plato, Aristotle • Students’ writings, including Plato’s, put forth his ideas • Socrates interested in broad concepts of human life— truth, justice, virtue
Philosophy of Socrates Asking Questions Socratic Method • Socrates believed philosophers could learn what made good people, societies by asking questions • By working through series of questions, Socrates thought people could discover basic nature of life • Started with basic questions, like “What is truth? ” • Method of learning through questions called the Socratic method • Socrates followed up with more questions
Plato • One of Socrates’ students, became great philosopher in own right • Left behind great number of writings that record ideas on wide variety of topics, from nature of truth to ideal form of government • The Republic argues that government should be led by philosophers Theory of Government • Philosophers most qualified to make good decisions • Did not support Athenian democracy in which all men could take part • Plato wanted to make philosopher’s education more formal • Founded the Academy, which in Plato’s lifetime became most important site for Greek philosophers to do their work
The Third Philosopher Aristotle • Aristotle was among students who studied at the Academy • More concerned with nature of world that surrounded him • Tried to apply philosophical principles to every kind of knowledge Emphasis on Reason and Logic • Emphasis on reason, logic • Reason, clear and ordered thinking; use reason to learn about world • Observe carefully, think rationally about what one has seen Inferring New Facts • Aristotle also helped develop field of logic, process of making inferences • Example: birds have feathers, lay eggs; owls have feathers, lay eggs; therefore, owl must be a type of bird
Identify Who were the greatest philosophers of ancient Greece? Answer(s): Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
Greek Literature Other Greek literature remains, with a great many works still popular today. Greeks excelled in poetry—both epics and other forms—history, and drama. Homer’s Epics • Most famous works are some of earliest • Epic poems of great events and heroes • The Iliad and the Odyssey, attributed to poet Homer, tell stories of Trojan War Iliad and Odyssey • Iliad tells story of last year of war, two heroes—Achilles and Hector • Odyssey tells story of heroes from the war, with Odysseus who was forced to wander the sea These two works became basis for the Greek education system.
Other Forms of Poetry Greeks wrote many types of poetry besides epics • Hesiod wrote descriptive poetry about works of gods, lives of peasants • Greeks also created lyric poetry – Named after the lyre, musical instrument often played to accompany reading of poems – Lyric poems do not tell stories, but deal with emotions, desires • Lyric poets – Sappho, one of few Greek women to gain fame as writer; dealt with daily life, marriage, love – Pindar, late 500 s, early 400 s; poems commemorated public events, like Olympic Games
History • Among fields for which Greeks best known • Greek authors wrote about and analyzed own past • First major Greek historian, Herodotus • Lived in Greece during wars with Persia; described battles and public debates in The Histories Primary Sources Describing Famous Men • Thucydides lived during Peloponnesian War, wrote about it • Another early historian, Xenophon fought in Persia after Persian Wars • Included primary sources, like speeches he heard delivered • Concentrated less on sources, debates, more on describing famous men; had less critical style • Looked at sources critically, ignored unreliable, irrelevant ones • Work has helped us learn what life was like in 300 s BC Greece
Drama While the Greeks wrote histories to preserve the past, they created a new form of writing for entertainment—drama, the art of playwriting. Athenian Roots • Earliest dramas part of festivals • Dionysus, god of wine and celebration • Group of actors called a chorus • Recited stories Development • Dramas became more complex • Individual actors took on roles of specific characters in stories • Two distinct forms of dramas developed, tragedy and comedy
Distinct Forms Tragedies Comedies • Focused on hardships faced by Greek heroes • Many comedies were satires, plays written to expose flaws of society • Three great writers – Aeschylus, Greek myths – Sophocles, suffering people brought on selves – Euripides, tragedy brought on by chance, behavior • Aristophanes greatest Greek comedy writer • Plays poke fun at aspects of Athenian society, from government to treatment of women
Find the Main Idea In what forms of writing did the Greeks excel? Answer(s): epics, history, poetry, drama
Greek Architecture and Art Beauty Architecture • Athenians enjoyed beauty, both written and visual • Athenians wanted their city to be most beautiful in Greece • Expressed love of written beauty through literature; visual beauty through architecture, art • Built magnificent temples, theatres, public buildings Enhancements • To enhance appearance of buildings, added fine works of art, painted and sculpted • Grandest buildings built on acropolis, at city’s center Parthenon • Most magnificent on acropolis • Massive temple to Athena • Begun by Pericles, 447 BC • Took 14 years to build
Greek Architecture and Art Parthenon impressive not for sheer size, but for proportion • Designers careful not to make too tall, too wide • Parthenon more than 200 feet long, 100 feet wide – Had doors, no windows – Surrounded by tall, graceful columns – Above columns, slabs of marble carved with scenes from myths – Ruins appear white today, but parts originally painted in vivid hues – Huge gold, ivory statue of Athena stood inside Parthenon
Human Forms Sculpture • Greek sculptors among finest world has ever known • Particularly adept at sculpting human form; studied people at rest, moving • Tried to re-create what they saw, paid particular attention to muscles Lifelike, Not Realistic • Greeks wanted statues to look lifelike, active, not necessarily realistic • Portrayed subjects as physically perfect, without blemishes, imperfections • Greek statues almost all depict figures of great beauty, grace Roman Copies • Few original works remain; most copies made a few hundred years later • Roman artists made many copies of greatest Greek statues • Many copies survived even after original statues destroyed
Painting • Only a few original Greek paintings survive • Best preserved are paintings on vases, plates, other vessels • Scenes from everyday life, or from myths, legends • Most use only red, black; still convey movement, depth Larger Paintings • Little evidence of larger works; written sources say Greeks created murals in many public buildings • Often included scenes from Iliad, Odyssey; showed aftermath of battles, rather than battle itself • Themes similar to tragic drama popular with Athenians
Make Generalizations What were some characteristics of Greek architecture and art? Answer(s): architecture—proportion, columns, vivid colors; art—idealistic sculpture depicting the human form; red and black vessels with scenes conveying movement and depth; murals and wall paintings
Alexander the Great and His Legacy Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Alexander the Great • Map: Alexander’s Empire • The Hellenistic World • Hellenistic Achievements • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of the Greek Scholars
Alexander the Great and His Main Idea Legacy Alexander the Great formed a huge empire, spread Greek culture into Egypt and many parts of Asia, and paved the way for a new civilization to develop in those areas. Reading Focus • How did Alexander the Great rise to power? • What was life like in the culture called the Hellenistic world that developed after Alexander’s death? • What were some significant Hellenistic achievements?
Alexander the Great Macedonia rose to power and took control of Greece in the years that followed the Peloponnesian War. The Rise of Macedonia • Most Greeks considered Macedonians backward – Lived in villages, not cities – Spoke form of Greek unintelligible to other Greeks • 359 BC, Macedonia’s fortune changed when Philip II took throne Army Reorganization • One of Philip’s first actions as king • Adopted phalanx system, but gave soldiers longer spears • Included larger bodies of cavalry and more archers • Set out to conquer Greece – Faced little opposition – Quickly crushed armies – Conquered all but Sparta
Alexander Becomes King • Philip’s conquests might have continued, but he was assassinated • Title, plans for conquests fell to son, Alexander the Great • Alexander only 20, but had been trained to rule almost from birth • Learned warfare and politics from father, mother, and Aristotle Alexander’s Conquests • Alexander faced almost immediately with revolts in Greece • Set out to reestablish control • Used harsh measures to show rebellion not tolerated • Crushed Theban army and sold people into slavery, burned city
Empire Building Empire Campaigns • With Greece under control, Alexander decided to build empire • Within year Alexander’s army had won victory against Persians in Asia Minor • 334 BC, led army into Asia to take on Persians • Moved south to Phoenicia, Egypt; welcomed as liberator, named new pharaoh • Army relatively small, but well trained, fiercely loyal • Persian army huge, disorganized • Next destroyed Persian army near Gaugamela, in what is now Iraq; caused Emperor Darius III to flee
Expanding the Empire With defeat of Darius, Alexander the master of Persian world • Troops marched to Persepolis, a Persian capital, burned it to ground as sign of victory • But Alexander not satisfied with size of empire – Led army deeper into Asia, winning more victories – Led army to the Indus, perhaps to conquer India – Soldiers had enough, refused to proceed farther from home – Alexander forced to turn back to west
End of the Empire Death at Early Age Power Struggle • Alexander’s empire largest world had ever seen • Generals fought each other for power • Did not rule very long • In the end, the empire was divided among three most powerful generals • 323 BC, Alexander fell ill while in Babylon • Died a few days later at age 33 • Alexander died without naming heir • Called themselves kings – Antigonus became king of Macedonia and Greece – Seleucus ruled Persian Empire – Ptolemy ruled Egypt
Summarize Why did Alexander’s empire break apart after his death? Answer(s): He did not name an heir, so the empire was divided among three powerful generals.
The Hellenistic World By bringing together a number of diverse peoples in his empire, Alexander helped create a new type of culture. It was no longer purely Greek, or Hellenic, but Hellenistic, or Greeklike. Blending Cultures New Cities • Alexander made conscious effort to bring people, ideas together • Appointed officials from various cultures to help rule • Married two Persian princesses • Encouraged soldiers to marry Persians as well • Built dozens of new cities, encouraged Greek settlers to move into them • Most new cities named Alexandria Most Famous City • Alexandria, Egypt • Located at mouth of Nile, where it met Mediterranean • Ideal location for trade • Harbor once busiest in world
Alexandria and Beyond Center of Culture • With trade money, Alexandrians built great palaces, streets lined with monuments; city was home to centers of culture, learning • The Museum, temple to spirit of creativity, home to many works of art Center of Learning • Library of Alexandria contained works on philosophy, literature, history, sciences • Alexandria remained center of culture, learning long after Hellenistic period Trading Centers • Alexandria one of largest trading centers, but not only one in Hellenistic world • Cities in Egypt, Persia, Central Asia trading centers for Africa, Arabia, India • Traders brought back goods, new ideas like teachings of Judaism
Life in the Hellenistic World Drastic Changes Life for Women • Shift from Hellenic Greece to Hellenistic world brought drastic changes to lives • Lives of women also changed significantly in Hellenistic Period • Most obvious change, how people were governed • City-state no longer main political unit, replaced by kingdom • Traditional Greek democracy gave way to monarchy • Women had few rights in earlier Greek city-states • Lives began to improve after Alexander, though women still not equal to men • Gained rights to receive education, own property
Explain How did society change in the Hellenistic age? Answer(s): different cultures blended; government changed; women gained more rights
Hellenistic Achievements • Blending of cultures brought significant changes • Exchange of ideas from different cultures • New advances in philosophy, literature and science Philosophy • New schools of philosophy developed in Alexander’s empire • One called Cynicism; students rejected pleasure, wealth, social responsibility • People live according to nature Epicureans • People should seek pleasure, considered good; try to avoid pain, considered evil • To find pleasure, develop close friendships with people who share similar ideas The most influential new school was Stoicism, with emphasis on reason, selfdiscipline, emotional control and personal morality. Stoics believed people should find their proper role in society and fulfill it.
Art and Literature Art and literature also changed during Hellenistic Period • Hellenistic artists learned to convey emotion, movement in works, especially sculpture • Women became much more common as subject of art, literature – – Most earlier Greek statues had depicted men Love stories became popular form for first time Earlier literature dealt with actions of gods Hellenistic writings focused on common events in people’s everyday lives
Science and Technology • Tremendous advances in science, technology during this period • Among great Egyptian scholars, Euclid formulated many ideas about geometry we still learn about today • Egypt also home of Eratosthenes, who calculated size of the world • Other Hellenistic scientists studied the movement of the stars; the makeup and inner workings of the human body Inventors Mechanics • Archimedes, one of world’s greatest inventors, used knowledge of math, physics to create devices • Other inventors not as ambitious as Archimedes, but clever in own right • Developed compound pulley to lift heavy loads; also invented mechanical screw to draw water out of ship’s hold, out of deep well • One built tiny steam engine, used to power mechanical toys • Such devices representative of Hellenistic fascination with mechanics, technology
Analyze What advances did Hellenistic scholars make in science and technology? Answer(s): geometry; calculating the circumference of the globe; study of the movement of the stars; study of the human body; new inventions
Video The Impact of the Greek Scholars Click above to play the video.