- Slides: 31
Early Empires in the Ancient Near East, c. 2300 B. C. – 300 B. C. World History, Chapter 3
Vocabulary to Know Empire Satrapy Successor Satrap Patriarchal Monarchy Expedition Code of Hammurabi Sustained Zoroastrianism
Ancient Near East The ancient Near East saw the rise and fall of great empires such as Akkad, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, and Persia. Each Empire formed its own culture and unique traditions. Governments were maintained by complex systems of administrators who collected taxes and provided justice. With the use of irrigation there was an abundance of food. This gave rise to magnificent cities.
Chapter 3, Lesson 1: Akkad and Babylon Goal: Students will know that strong leaders established empires in Akkad and Babylon
Empires An empire is a large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many people or territories. Successors are ones who follow, especially one who succeeds the throne or office. Empires are often easy to create, but difficult to control. The rise and fall of empires is an important part of history.
The Akkadians In about 2330 B. C. the Akkadians attacked and conquered the quarreling Sumerians Spoke a Semitic language similar to modern day Hebrew and Arabic Sargon – most powerful Akkadian king The Akkadian Empire lasted about 150 years until the Babylonians came to power during that time, Sumerian city-states once again rose to power
The Babylonians Hammurabi – strong Babylonian ruler who conquered most of the Tigris. Euphrates Valley outstanding political leader and lawmaker compiled a code of law bearing his name
Code of Hammurabi collection of 282 laws concerning all aspects of Babylonian life commerce, industry, wages, hours, working conditions, and property rights while punishment was harsh (“an eye for an eye”) under the law, status had its privileges and punishment varied accordingly
Code of Hammurabi (cont. ) It is the earliest examples of a written law code. Had a major impact on both Mesopotamia and future legal codes. i. e. Marriage laws, property rights, etc. The Code of Hammurabi, c. 1760 B. C. , Louvre Museum, France
Babylonian Culture most Babylonians farmed, kept domesticated animals, and grew a wide variety of crops the Babylonians were also active traders Patriarchal society: men dominated society Babylonian women had some legal and economic rights including property rights could be merchants, traders, or even scribes although husbands could divorce their wives, wives could not divorce their husbands but if the husband was cruel, the wife could leave and take her property
Babylonian Religion Babylonians adopted many Sumerian religious beliefs made sacrifices for good harvests , etc. belief in a shadowy life after death Babylonian religious practices centered around a successful earthly life believed priests could foretell (predict) the future, so they had power and wealth Sumerian God Enki
Chapter 3, Lesson 2: Egypt and Kush Goal: Students will know that civilizations in the Nile River valley were prosperous but also occasionally subject to outside rule.
Egypt and Kush After a period of disorder, new dynasties of pharaohs established the New Kingdom (c. 1550 -1070 B. C. ) The New Kingdom restored Egyptian greatness and created an empire that made Egypt the most powerful state in the ancient Near East. To the South of Egypt, a new kingdom known as Kush emerged.
Hyksos Influence on Egyptians learned to use bronze for farming tools and weapons. Mastered many of their military skills including horse-drawn war chariots. Eventually, a new dynasty of pharaohs used the new weapons to drive out the Hyksos and reunite Egypt.
Queen Hatshepsut She was at first a regent for her stepson Thutmosis III (an infant) but later assumed the throne herself. Built a great temple dedicated to herself and frequently sent out military expeditions (journeys taken for a specific purpose), encouraged mining, and sent a trading expedition up the Nile. Her official status sometimes show her clothed and bearded like a king and was addressed as “His Majesty. ”
End of an Empire New invasions in the 1200 s B. C. by what the Egyptians referred to as the “Sea Peoples” destroyed Egyptian power. For the next thousand years, Egypt was dominated periodically by Libyans, Nubians, Persians, and Finally, Macedonians after the conquest of Alexander the Great. In the first century B. C. the pharaoh Cleopatra VII tried to reestablish Egypt’s independence, but her involvement with Rome led to her defeat and suicide (by snakebite), and Egypt became a province of Rome.
Major events and changes in Egypt and Kush between 1650 B. C. and A. D. 150 Hyksos invade Egypt New Kingdom established Egypt gains Nubia, Canaan, Syria Worship of Aten introduced but fails Loss of Syria and Canaan
Major events in Egypt and Kush cont. Invasions by the “Sea Peoples” Collapse of New Kingdom Kush becomes independent state Kush conquers and soon loses Egypt Kush is a major trading empire
Chapter 3, Lesson 3: Assyria and Persia Goal: Students will know that the Assyrians and the Persians established vast empires in the ancient world
The Assyrians the Assyrians from northern Mesopotamia expanded their power across the Fertile Crescent and into Egypt between about 900 B. C. and about 650 B. C. at its height, the Assyrian Empire included all of Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and the Nile Valley
Assyrians were fierce effective warriors the first to use cavalry – soldiers on horseback used terror to control enemies enslaved people killed captured enemy soldiers deported people to other regions captured Babylon, looted it, and then destroyed it completely
The Assyrians the Assyrians were one of the first to effectively govern a large empire Assyrian king had absolute or total power used priests and government officials governors ruled conquered lands and made regular reports to the king
The Assyrians the Assyrian capital, Ninevah, was the home of a great library scholars kept clay tablets filled with literature Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a Sumerian king and one of the oldest works of literature double wall built around city – 70 feet high, 7. 5 miles long, sometimes 148 feet wide, with 15 decorated gates Eleventh Tablet from the Epic of Gilgamesh civil war weakened the Assyrian Empire, leaving it vulnerable to the 621 B. C. attack by the Chaldeans and Medes; Ninevah was captured and destroyed
The Chaldeans the Chaldeans took control of much of the territory that the Assyrians had ruled Nebuchadnezzar – under his leadership, the Chaldeans conquered most of the Fertile Crescent, and Babylon became a large and wealthy city again he is best remembered for creating the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for one of his wives Amytis (one of the Seven Wonders of the World)
The Chaldeans skilled astronomers kept careful record of star and planet movement and could predict solar and lunar eclipses calculated the length of a year with very high accuracy the Chaldean Empire fell within 30 years of Nebuchadnezzar’s death
The Persians conquered Babylon in 539 B. C. , along with the Medes and the area became known as Persia and Media Cyrus the Great – rebelled against the Medes controlling the Persians and captured Babylon Cyrus, Darius I, and Xerxes I expanded the empire the Persian Empire stretched between the Indus River and parts of southeastern Europe tried to take over Greece but failed to conquer it ruled the mightiest empire in history up to that time
Persian Government The early Persian kings were effective rulers as well as great generals, allowing conquered peoples to keep their own religions and laws Darius strengthened the Persian government by dividing the empire into 20 provinces, called satrapies. Each province was ruled by a governor, or satrap, literally a “protector of the kingdom” Each satrap collected taxes, provided justice, and recruited soldiers.
Government cont. the Persian road system helped to link the sprawling empire together (Royal Road) allowed different cultures to exchange customs, goods, and ideas Efficient communication and transportation systems sustained (supported or held up) the empire
Persian Government cont. The Persian government was a monarchy (a government ruled by a king and queen) The “Great King” held an exalted position of tremendous authority, and he held the power of life and death over them. An officer paying homage to King Darius I, shown here on his thrown.
Persian Religion Zoroastrianism One of Persia’s major cultural, philosophical, and religious influences. Founded, according to tradition, by the Persian prophet Zoroaster, born in 660 B. C. Teachings recorded in sacred text, the Zend Avesta Monotheistic – based on the belief in supreme creator god Ahuramazda (“Wise Lord”) Human beings participate in struggle between good and evil. Good will be victorious at the end of the world. Those who performed good deeds in life will be rewarded with paradise. Those who performed evil deeds in life will be punished in an abyss.
The Decline of the Persians the Persian Empire began to lose strength because of poor leadership and was finally conquered by Alexander the Great’s Greek forces in 331 B. C