- Slides: 28
Early American History Unit 2: The American Colonies: Discovery to 1763 England’s 13 American Colonies
Review: The First English Colonies 1. What was the crop that saved Jamestown from failure and built Virginia’s economy? 2. Explain the concepts of indentured servitude as introduced by the London Company to populate Jamestown. 3. Why did the Pilgrims, and later, the Puritans, settle in what is now Massachusetts? 4. What was Virginia’s House of Burgesses? 5. What is the importance of the Mayflower Compact in American History?
1) What resources do you see in the colonies? 2) What similarities existed among the colonial regions? 3) What differences existed among the colonial regions?
The 13 English Colonies in 1750
New England Colonies • Politics – Self government with elected representatives • Geography • Cold climate, rocky soil • Economic – Lumbering, shipbuilding, trade, fishing, small farms • Social – Puritan; religious freedom
The New England Colonies • Pilgrims & Puritans in MA, CT, RI, & NH • 1635 – Roger Williams, a Separatist minister, was banished from MA by Puritans. Founded RI after getting charter from King. Lecturer Anne Hutchinson, a heretic in MA, also left for RI. They helped bring religious tolerance to New England.
Mayflower Compact • Read the excerpt on the Mayflower Compact and answer the questions below.
The New England Colonies • 1636 – Thomas Hooker (CT) – liberal minister who hated Puritan restrictions on voting who left with his congregation. Their rules/ laws were called the Fundamental Orders of CT. First written constitution. • 1662 – King Charles II granted them a charter.
The New England Colonies • 1622 – NH was established for religious freedom too. John Mason (VT) and Ferdinando Gorges were granted what is now VT and ME. They divided it in 1629. Maine was part of MA until it became a state in 1820.
Middle Colonies • Political – Self-government w/ elected reps • Geographic – Mild climate, moderate soil
Middle Colonies (cont. ) • Economic – Fur trading, farming, shipbuilding raising livestock • Social – Quakers; religious freedom; culturally diverse
The Middle Colonies • 1664 - NY taken from Dutch by James, Duke of York who was brother of King Charles II. NJ was given to Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkley (who already had Carolina) from NY b/c Duke thought NY too big to manage. Berkley later sold his interest in NJ to two Quakers.
The Middle Colonies • 1682 –PA by William Penn– Known for religious tolerance and political freedom. It was called “the Holy Experiment” for the Religious Society of Friends or “Quakers” b/c they “quaked” before power of God. They believed people should find truth from “inner light of God” and “brotherly love. ” • Penn founded Philadelphia & made treaty of friendship with Native Americans b/c they believed all to be equal. Settled by people from all over Europe b/c Penn recruited. PA became very diverse culturally.
The Middle Colonies • 1701 – DE (New Sweden) broke off from PA and became own colony • The Duke of York and William Penn were proprietors – they owned colony & rented land if they agreed to recognize the Crown’s control & keep laws consistent with England’s laws. The colony basically belonged to them.
Southern Colonies • Political – Self-government; first rep. gov. w/ VA House of Burgesses • Geographic – Hot/humid climate, fertile soil
Southern Colonies (cont. ) • Economic – Cash crops (tobacco, rice, indigo), plantations (large farms) • Social – Slaves; indentured servants
The Southern Colonies • Southern Colonies – Slavery was more important here because cash crops like tobacco, indigo, and rice are more labor intensive. People were given religious freedom. • 1634 - Lord Baltimore – Catholic proprietor – granted MD by Charles I as Catholic haven (although most settlers were protestant) & tobacco producing colony. MD was known for religious freedom/ tolerance as well.
The Southern Colonies • 1663 - NC and SC – Charles II gave charter to 8 English nobles. They encouraged immigration through indentured servitude and the headright system. 1690 – rice or “Carolina gold” introduced from Madagascar & slaves needed to grow and harvest it. NC was less successful as it didn’t attract rich planters from VA, but poor frontiersmen who farmed. • 1729 – NC & SC divided as Crown ended proprietorship and they became royal colonies.
The Southern Colonies • 1732 – James Oglethorpe – GA – buffer between SC & Spanish FL, a haven for debtors, and mulberry trees & silk worms (which failed) Place to send English who had been jailed.
Keeping Order: Colonial Governments • Each had a legislature and usually it was bicameral. PA was only exception. • In 8 Royal Colonies, Upper house & governor chosen by Crown and Lower House by the People. • In the 2 Self-governing Colonies – CT & RI - both houses & governor chosen by the people. • 3 colonies - PA, MD, & DE - remained Proprietary but similar to Royal Colonies as proprietor appointed governor.
Keeping Order: Colonial Governments • Judges were appointed by the King in Royal Colonies and elected by the people in Selfgoverning Colonies. • Suffrage was not universal. Only white men, 21 years of age and that owned land could vote. • In Royal Colonies & Proprietary, governor had veto power, but legislature levied taxes and set governor’s salary Do you think they got along?
Colonial Economies by Region • New England Colonies – Fishing, whaling, lumbering, ship building, fur trade, shipping and long-distance trade were the mainstays (Triangle Trade). Later manufacturing and distilling (firearms and rum) became important due to trade between Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa (slavery). Small subsistence farms were common.
Colonial Economies by Region • Middle Colonies – Small farms and commercial farms produced livestock, grain, and food stuffs to be sold in cities. Slavery was not as important here; economies were mixed between farming and commerce.
Colonial Economies by Region • Southern Colonies – Slavery, especially after 1700, was more important here because cash crops like tobacco, indigo, and rice needed more labor. Plantation agriculture became dominant, but smaller farms would develop on the western frontier. Very small middle class compared to other regions. Ports like Charleston, SC and Savanna, GA, as well as New Orleans, LA were very important to the region.
Locate England’s 13 American Colonies 3. 2. 6. 8. 7. 12. 1. 9. 4. 11. 10. 5. 13. • Location of All 13 Colonies • Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico & Atlantic Ocean • Appalachian Mountains • Location and key of NE, Middle & Southern Colonies.
Use the information on the passenger lists to complete the chart below and answer the questions that follow: To Virginia To New England Total Passengers? Ratio of Males to Females? Age Distribution? 0 -4 (infants) 5 -13 (children) 14 -24 (young adults) 25 -59 (adults) 60+ (elderly) Number of married Passengers? Number of passengers traveling with at least one family member? 1. Describe the “typical” English immigrant to the New World in terms of gender , age, and marital status on each of the ships. How does this differ on the two ships? 2. What can you tell about the social background and wealth of the average passenger on each of the ships? Does one of the ships have richer passengers? What do you predict the passengers on the America will do when they arrive in Virginia?
Exit Slip: England’s 13 American Colonies 1. True or False: Massachusetts had a strong reputation for religious tolerance. 2. True or False: Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson are most closely associated with Maryland. 3. True or False: Pennsylvania was founded by a religious sect called the Quakers. 4. True or False: Colonies controlled by the Crown through an appointed royal governor were known as Proprietary Colonies. 5. True or False: The system of slavery was most important to the plantation economies of the Southern Colonies.
Creating a “Foldable” for the 13 Colonies Review/ Re-teaching Activity • One section for each region: New England, Middle Colonies, Southern Colonies • Your Foldable must include the following for each of the three regions: 1. Name the colonies in each region. 2. Who lived there? Ethnicity, Religion, Culture? 3. Geography? What was it like there? 4. Type of economy/ resources/ products produced/ how did they earn money? • Be neat! Use space effectively! Color/ illustrations are nice!