Drifting Continents OBJECTIVE n Describe early evidence that

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Drifting Continents OBJECTIVE n Describe early evidence that led people to suggest that Earth’s

Drifting Continents OBJECTIVE n Describe early evidence that led people to suggest that Earth’s continents may have once been joined. n Identify evidence of continental drift. n Explain why continental drift was not accepted when it was first proposed. Vocabulary – continental drift – Pangaea

Drifting Continents n Earth’s surface appears to remain relatively unchanged during the course of

Drifting Continents n Earth’s surface appears to remain relatively unchanged during the course of an average human lifetime. n On the geologic time scale, Earth’s surface is changing at rates almost too great to imagine.

Drifting Continents Early Observations n In the late 1500 s, Abraham Ortelius, a Dutch

Drifting Continents Early Observations n In the late 1500 s, Abraham Ortelius, a Dutch mapmaker, noticed the apparent fit of continents on either side of the Atlantic Ocean. n In the late 1800 s, Eduard Suess, an Austrian geologist, hypothesized that the present southern continents had once been joined as a single landmass that he named Gondwanaland.

Drifting Continents Early Observations n The first time that the idea of moving continents

Drifting Continents Early Observations n The first time that the idea of moving continents was proposed as a serious scientific hypothesis was in 1912 by a German scientist named Alfred Wegener. n He proposed that the continents had moved, or drifted, from one location to another over time.

Drifting Continents Continental Drift

Drifting Continents Continental Drift

Drifting Continents Continental Drift n Wegener’s hypothesis, continental drift, proposed that Earth’s continents had

Drifting Continents Continental Drift n Wegener’s hypothesis, continental drift, proposed that Earth’s continents had once been joined as a single landmass. n Wegener proposed that Pangaea began to break apart about 200 million years ago. n Pangaea, a Greek word that means “all the earth, ” refers to the combined landmass.

Drifting Continents Continental Drift

Drifting Continents Continental Drift

Drifting Continents Continental Drift Evidence from Rock Formations – Wegener reasoned that large geologic

Drifting Continents Continental Drift Evidence from Rock Formations – Wegener reasoned that large geologic structures, such as mountain ranges, would have fractured as the continents separated. – Using this reasoning, Wegener hypothesized that there should be areas of similar rock types on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean. – That similar groups of rocks were observed in the United States, Greenland, and Europe supported Wegener’s idea.

Drifting Continents Continental Drift Evidence from Rock Formations

Drifting Continents Continental Drift Evidence from Rock Formations

Drifting Continents Continental Drift Evidence from Fossils – Similar fossils of several different animals

Drifting Continents Continental Drift Evidence from Fossils – Similar fossils of several different animals and plants that once lived on land had been found on widely separated continents. – The ages of different fossils predated Wegener’s time frame for the breakup of Pangaea. – Fossils of Glossopteris, a seed fern that resembled low shrubs, have been found on many continents, indicating that the areas had a single climate that was close to the equator.

Drifting Continents Continental Drift - Evidence from Fossils

Drifting Continents Continental Drift - Evidence from Fossils

Drifting Continents Continental Drift n When did Africa and South America split into separate

Drifting Continents Continental Drift n When did Africa and South America split into separate continents? n Why was the fossil, mesosaurus an important form of evidence for theory of continental drift?

Drifting Continents

Drifting Continents

Drifting Continents Ancient Climatic Evidence – Various sedimentary rocks offer evidence of vast climatic

Drifting Continents Ancient Climatic Evidence – Various sedimentary rocks offer evidence of vast climatic changes on some continents. – Coal deposits in Antarctica suggested that it must have been closer to the equator. – Glacial deposits found in Africa, India, Australia, and South America suggested that these areas had once been covered by thick ice caps. – Wegener proposed that they once were located near the south pole before Pangaea began to fracture.

Drifting Continents Ancient Climatic Evidence

Drifting Continents Ancient Climatic Evidence

Drifting Continents The Break Up

Drifting Continents The Break Up

Drifting Continents A Rejected Hypothesis n In the early 1900 s, most scientists rejected

Drifting Continents A Rejected Hypothesis n In the early 1900 s, most scientists rejected Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift. n Two unanswered questions—what forces could move continents and how continents could move without shattering —were the main reasons that the hypothesis of continental drift was rejected.

Drifting Continents Section Assessment 1. How did Pangaea differ from the present layout of

Drifting Continents Section Assessment 1. How did Pangaea differ from the present layout of the continents? During Pangaea, the continents were joined and essentially located in one hemisphere from the north to the south poles. Presently, the continents have separated and are distributed in both the eastern and western hemisphere, with the majority of landmass in the northern hemisphere.

Drifting Continents Section Assessment 2. According to Wegener, what force caused the continents to

Drifting Continents Section Assessment 2. According to Wegener, what force caused the continents to move? Wegener suggested that the rotation of Earth could be responsible for continental movement.

Section Assessment Drifting Continents 3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false.

Section Assessment Drifting Continents 3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false. True Similar rock types are located in South America and Africa. ______ True Gondwanaland Pangaea essentially refer to the same thing. False Coal located in India and Africa suggest that they were once located ______ in warmer climates. True ______ Geologic evidence suggests that North America, Greenland, and Europe were once connected.

Deriva Continental n La idea de que los continentes, sobre todo Sudamérica y África,

Deriva Continental n La idea de que los continentes, sobre todo Sudamérica y África, encajan como piezas de un rompecabezas, se origino con el desarrollo de mapa mundiales razonablemente precisos. n Se dio poca importancia a esta noción hasta 1915 cuando Alfred Wegener, meteorólogo y geólogo alemán publico El origen de los continentes y los océanos. n Wegener estableció el esbozo básico de su radical hipótesis de la deriva continental.

Deriva Continental n Wegener sugirió que en el pasado había existido un supercontinente único

Deriva Continental n Wegener sugirió que en el pasado había existido un supercontinente único denominado Pangea (pan = todo, gea = Tierra).

Seafloor Spreading Objectives n Summarize the evidence that led to the discovery of seafloor

Seafloor Spreading Objectives n Summarize the evidence that led to the discovery of seafloor spreading. n Explain the significance of magnetic patterns on the seafloor. n Explain the process of seafloor spreading. Vocabulary – magnetometer – isochron – paleomagnetism – seafloor spreading – magnetic reversal

Seafloor Spreading n Until the mid-1900 s, most people, including many scientists, thought that

Seafloor Spreading n Until the mid-1900 s, most people, including many scientists, thought that the ocean floor, unlike the continents, was essentially flat. n Many people also had the misconceptions that oceanic crust was unchanging and was much older than continental crust. n Advances in technology during the 1940 s and 1950 s, however, proved all of these widely accepted ideas to be wrong.

Seafloor Spreading Help from Technology n The development of echo-sounding methods allowed scientists to

Seafloor Spreading Help from Technology n The development of echo-sounding methods allowed scientists to study the ocean floor in great detail. n Sonar uses sound waves to measure water depth by measuring the time it takes for sound waves to travel from the device and back to a receiver.

Seafloor Spreading Help from Technology n A magnetometer is a device that can detect

Seafloor Spreading Help from Technology n A magnetometer is a device that can detect small changes in magnetic fields, allowing scientists to construct magnetic maps of the seafloor.

Seafloor Spreading Ocean Floor Topography n The maps made from the data collected by

Seafloor Spreading Ocean Floor Topography n The maps made from the data collected by sonar and magnetometers showed underwater mountain chains called ocean ridges. n The same data showed that these underwater mountain chains have counterparts called deep-sea trenches. n These two topographic features of the ocean floor puzzled geologists for over a decade after their discovery.

Seafloor Spreading Ocean Rocks and Sediments n Analysis of deep-sea rocks and sediments produced

Seafloor Spreading Ocean Rocks and Sediments n Analysis of deep-sea rocks and sediments produced two important discoveries. 1. The ages of the rocks that make up the seafloor vary in different places, and that the age of oceanic crust consistently increases with distance from a ridge. – The oldest part of the seafloor is geologically young at about 180 million years old. 2. The thickness of ocean-floor sediment was, in general, much less than expected and that the thickness of the sediments increases with distance from an ocean ridge.

Seafloor Spreading Ocean Rocks and Sediments

Seafloor Spreading Ocean Rocks and Sediments

El Campo Magnético de la Tierra n Cualquiera que haya utilizado una brújula para

El Campo Magnético de la Tierra n Cualquiera que haya utilizado una brújula para orientarse sabe que el campo magnético de la Tierra tiene un polo norte y un polo sur magnéticos. n Líneas de fuerza invisibles atraviesan el planeta y se extienden de un polo magnético al otro. n Ciertas rocas contienen minerales que sirven como brújulas fósiles. Estos minerales ricos en hierro, son abundantes en las coladas de lava de composición basáltica.

El Campo Magnético de la Tierra n Cuando se calientan por encima de una

El Campo Magnético de la Tierra n Cuando se calientan por encima de una temperatura conocida como el punto de Curie, estos minerales magnéticos pierden su magnetismo. n Sin embargo, cuando esos granos rico en hierro se enfrían por debajo de su punto de Curie (aproximadamente 585 ºC para la magnetita) se magnetizan de manera según una dirección paralela a las líneas de fuerzas magnéticas existentes en ese momento.

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism n Rocks containing iron-bearing minerals provide a record of Earth’s magnetic

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism n Rocks containing iron-bearing minerals provide a record of Earth’s magnetic field. n Paleomagnetism is the study of Earth’s magnetic record. n Basalt, because it is rich in iron-bearing minerals, provides an accurate record of ancient magnetism.

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale – Studies of continental basalt flows in

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale – Studies of continental basalt flows in the early 1960 s revealed a pattern of magnetic reversals over geologic time. – A magnetic reversal is a change in Earth’s magnetic field. n A magnetic field that is the same as the present has normal polarity. n A magnetic field that is opposite to the present has reversed polarity.

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale – Towing magnetometers behind ships to measure

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale – Towing magnetometers behind ships to measure the magnetic field of the ocean floor revealed an interesting pattern. n In places where the magnetic readings of the ocean floor matched Earth’s present field, a stronger-thannormal reading (+) was recorded. n In places where the magnetic data were reversed in relation to Earth’s present magnetic field, a lowerthan-normal reading (–) was recorded.

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism Magnetic Symmetry – The positive and negative areas of the seafloor

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism Magnetic Symmetry – The positive and negative areas of the seafloor form a series of stripes that were parallel to ocean ridges. – The magnetic pattern on one side of the ridge is a mirror image of the pattern on the other side of the ridge.

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism Magnetic Symmetry – The magnetic data collected from the ocean floor

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism Magnetic Symmetry – The magnetic data collected from the ocean floor matched the pattern of magnetic reversals that had been found in basalt flows on land. – From this match, scientists were able to determine the age of the ocean floor from a magnetic recording and quickly create isochron maps of the ocean floor. – An isochron is a line on a map that connects points that have the same age.

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism

Seafloor Spreading Magnetism

Seafloor Spreading n An American scientist named Harry Hess proposed theory of seafloor spreading.

Seafloor Spreading n An American scientist named Harry Hess proposed theory of seafloor spreading. n Seafloor spreading states that new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges and destroyed at deepsea trenches. – Magma is forced toward the crust along an ocean ridge and fills the gap that is created.

Seafloor Spreading – When the magma hardens, a small amount of new ocean floor

Seafloor Spreading – When the magma hardens, a small amount of new ocean floor is added to Earth’s surface. – Each cycle of spreading and the intrusion of magma results in the formation of another small section of ocean floor, which slowly moves away from the ridge.

Seafloor Spreading The Missing Link – Seafloor spreading was the missing link needed by

Seafloor Spreading The Missing Link – Seafloor spreading was the missing link needed by Wegener to complete his model of continental drift. – Continents are not pushing through ocean crust, as Wegener proposed; they ride with ocean crust as it slowly moves away from ocean ridges.

Seafloor Spreading Section Assessment 1. Match the following terms with their definitions. A. a

Seafloor Spreading Section Assessment 1. Match the following terms with their definitions. A. a device that can detect small A magnetometer ___ C paleomagnetism ___ B isochron ___ changes in magnetic fields B. a line on a map that connects points that have the same age C. the study of Earth’s magnetic ___ D seafloor spreading record D. a theory that states that new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges and destroyed at deepsea trenches

Seafloor Spreading Section Assessment 2. How does the distribution of ocean-floor sediments support theory

Seafloor Spreading Section Assessment 2. How does the distribution of ocean-floor sediments support theory of seafloor spreading? The thickness of ocean-floor sediments increases with distance from an ocean ridge which indicates that the seafloor is older with distance.

Seafloor Spreading Section Assessment 3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false.

Seafloor Spreading Section Assessment 3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false. true Earth’s magnetic field has reversed more than ______ 20 times over the past five million years. false The oldest part of the seafloor is over 500 million ______ years old. false ______ Alfred Wegener first proposed theory of seafloor spreading. false ______ Shale provides an accurate record of ancient magnetism.

Theory of Plate Tectonics Objectives n Explain theory of plate tectonics. n Compare and

Theory of Plate Tectonics Objectives n Explain theory of plate tectonics. n Compare and contrast the three types of plate boundaries and the features associated with each. Vocabulary – theory of plate tectonics – subduction – divergent boundary – transform boundary – rift valley – convergent boundary

Theory of Plate Tectonics n The theory of plate tectonics states that Earth’s crust

Theory of Plate Tectonics n The theory of plate tectonics states that Earth’s crust and rigid upper mantle are broken into enormous moving slabs called plates. n There a dozen or so major plates and several smaller ones. n Tectonic plates move in different directions and at different rates over Earth’s surface.

Theory of Plate Tectonics

Theory of Plate Tectonics

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries n Tectonic plates interact at places called plate

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries n Tectonic plates interact at places called plate boundaries. n At some plate boundaries: – Plates come together, or converge – Plates move away from one another, or diverge – Plates move horizontally past one another

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Divergent Boundaries – Divergent boundaries are places where

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Divergent Boundaries – Divergent boundaries are places where two tectonic plates are moving apart. – Most divergent boundaries are found in rifts, or faultbounded valleys, which form along the axis of an ocean ridge. – A rift valley, which is a narrow depression, is created when a divergent boundary forms on a continent.

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries – Convergent boundaries are places where

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries – Convergent boundaries are places where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other. – There are three types of convergent boundaries: 1. Oceanic crust converging with oceanic crust 2. Oceanic crust converging with continental crust 3. Continental crust converging and colliding with continental crust.

Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics

Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries – Subduction occurs when one of

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries – Subduction occurs when one of the two converging plates descends beneath the other. – A subduction zone forms when one oceanic plate, which has become denser as a result of cooling, descends below another plate creating a deep-sea trench. – The subducted plate descends into the mantle and melts. – Some of the magma forms new oceanic crust at the ridge or is forced back to the surface, forming an arc of volcanic islands that parallel the trench.

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries – When an oceanic plate converges

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries – When an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate, the denser oceanic plate is subducted. – Oceanic-continental convergence produces a trench and a series of volcanoes along the edge of the continental plate. – Two continental plates collide when an ocean basin between converging oceanic and continental plates is entirely subducted. – Because continental rocks are too buoyant to be forced into the mantle, the colliding edges of the continents are crumpled and uplifted to form a mountain range.

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Transform Boundaries – A transform boundary is a

Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Transform Boundaries – A transform boundary is a place where two plates slide horizontally past each other, deforming or fracturing the crust. – Transform boundaries are characterized by long faults and usually offset sections of ocean ridges. – The San Andreas Fault is an exception to the fact that transform boundaries rarely occur on continents.

Theory of Plate Tectonics Section Assessment 1. Match the following terms with their definitions.

Theory of Plate Tectonics Section Assessment 1. Match the following terms with their definitions. ___ B divergent boundary ___ E rift valley ___ A convergent boundary ___ D transform boundary ___ C subduction zone A. place where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other B. place where two tectonic plates are moving apart C. when one of two converging plates descends beneath the other D. place where two plates slide horizontally past each other E. result of a divergent boundary forming on a continent

Theory of Plate Tectonics Section Assessment 2. What happens to an oceanic plate once

Theory of Plate Tectonics Section Assessment 2. What happens to an oceanic plate once it is subducted? What is created with the material? The subducted plate melts in the mantle. Some of the resulting magma is forced to the surface creating a series of volcanoes that are parallel to the subduction zone. Some of the magma is recycled into new oceanic crust at the ridge.

Theory of Plate Tectonics Section Assessment 3. Why does uplift occur when two continental

Theory of Plate Tectonics Section Assessment 3. Why does uplift occur when two continental plates converge? Give an example of this process. The rocks that make up a continental plate are too buoyant to be forced into the mantle. As a result, the colliding edges of the continents are crumpled and uplifted to form a mountain range such as the Himalayas.

Causes of Plate Motions Objectives n Explain the process of convection. n Summarize how

Causes of Plate Motions Objectives n Explain the process of convection. n Summarize how convection in the mantle is related to the movements of tectonic plates. n Compare and contrast the processes of ridge push and slab pull. Vocabulary – ridge push – slab pull

Causes of Plate Motions n The directions and rates of plate movements have been

Causes of Plate Motions n The directions and rates of plate movements have been measured. n What actually causes the plates to move is not well understood. n One of the leading hypotheses proposes that large -scale motion in the mantle is the mechanism that drives the movement of tectonic plates.

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection n Convection is the transfer of thermal energy

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection n Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated matter. n Convection currents in the mantle are thought to be the driving mechanism of plate movements. n Convection currents in this part of the mantle are set in motion by the transfer of energy between Earth’s hot interior and its cooler exterior. n It is hypothesized that these convection currents are probably set in motion by subducting slabs, thus causing plates to move.

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection n The rising part of a convection current

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection n The rising part of a convection current spreads out as it reaches the upper mantle and causes both upward and lateral forces. n These forces lift and split the lithosphere at divergent plate boundaries. n The downward part of a convection current occurs where a sinking force pulls tectonic plates downward at convergent boundaries.

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Push and Pull – During the formation of

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Push and Pull – During the formation of an ocean ridge, forces in the mantle cause the asthenosphere to rise. – In a process called ridge push, the weight of the uplifted ridge is thought to push an oceanic plate toward the trench formed at the subduction zone. – In addition to ridge push, the horizontal flow at the top of a convection current could create drag on the lithosphere and thereby contribute to plate motion.

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Push and Pull – A sinking region of

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Push and Pull – A sinking region of a mantle convection current could suck an oceanic plate downward into a subduction zone. – In a process called slab pull, the weight of a subducting plate helps pull the trailing lithosphere into the subduction zone.

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Push and Pull

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Push and Pull

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Unanswered Questions – There are unanswered questions about

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Unanswered Questions – There are unanswered questions about how these convection currents originate and what their actual sizes are. – Some geologists have suggested that subducted slabs, over time, might eventually reach Earth’s outer core. – Other remaining questions concern relationships between convection currents and the overlying plates. – Most studies show that the process of slab pull is the most important force driving tectonic plate motions.

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Unanswered Questions – A similar set of questions

Causes of Plate Motions Mantle Convection Unanswered Questions – A similar set of questions surround the formation of divergent continental plate boundaries. – One hypothesis is that large continental masses ultimately cause their own breakup by acting as insulating blankets. – The underlying mantle then becomes warmer and causes the upward leg of a convection current to develop, which eventually causes the continent to split.

Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment 1. How might a convection current cause a

Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment 1. How might a convection current cause a divergent boundary? An upward flow in the mantle causes the asthenosphere to rise. This force causes the lithosphere to rise and split. As the plates separate, material rising from the mantle supplies the magma that hardens to form new ocean crust.

Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment 2. How might a convection current cause a

Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment 2. How might a convection current cause a convergent boundary? A sinking region of a mantle convection current could suck an oceanic plate downward into a subduction zone. The weight of a subducting plate helps pull the trailing lithosphere into the subduction zone in a process called slab pull.

Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment 3. How are slab push and slab pull

Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment 3. How are slab push and slab pull related processes? Slab pull is thought to be the most important process driving tectonic plate motions. The material that is subducted through slab pull enters the convection current that drives slab push.

Chapter Resources Menu Study Guide Section 17. 1 Section 17. 2 Section 17. 3

Chapter Resources Menu Study Guide Section 17. 1 Section 17. 2 Section 17. 3 Section 17. 4 Chapter Assessment Image Bank

Section 17. 1 Study Guide Section 17. 1 Main Ideas n The matching coastlines

Section 17. 1 Study Guide Section 17. 1 Main Ideas n The matching coastlines of continents on n opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean suggest that thedrift continents once joined. were Continental states thatwere Earth’s continents joined as a single landmass that broke apart and sent the continents adrift. n Wegener supported his hypothesis of continental drift with rock types, fossils, and ancient climatic data. His hypothesis was not accepted at first because he couldn’t explain how the continents moved or what caused their motion.

Section 17. 2 Study Guide Section 17. 2 Main Ideas n Sonar and magnetic

Section 17. 2 Study Guide Section 17. 2 Main Ideas n Sonar and magnetic studies of ocean rocks and sediments led to the proposal of theory of seafloor spreading. n Magnetic patterns on the seafloor are symmetric in relation to ocean ridges, indicating that ocean crust on either side of the ridge is moving away from the ridge at essentially the same rate. n During seafloor spreading, magma rises and hardens to form new crust, which becomes part of the ocean floor. Each cycle of spreading and intrusion results in the formation of another small section of ocean floor, which slowly moves away from the ridge.

Section 17. 3 Study Guide Section 17. 3 Main Ideas n Plate tectonics states

Section 17. 3 Study Guide Section 17. 3 Main Ideas n Plate tectonics states that Earth’s crust and n rigid upper mantle are broken into large slabs of rock called plates, which move in different At divergent plate boundaries, plates move apart. At directions and at different rates over Earth’s convergent boundaries, plates come together. At surface. transform boundaries, plates slide horizontally past each other. n High heat flow, volcanism, and earthquakes are associated with divergent boundaries; trenches, island arcs, and folded mountains with convergent boundaries; and faults and earthquakes with transform boundaries.

Section 17. 4 Study Guide Section 17. 4 Main Ideas n Convection is the

Section 17. 4 Study Guide Section 17. 4 Main Ideas n Convection is the transfer of energy via the n movement of heated matter. Convection currents in the mantle are the result of energy Ridge push occurs when. Earth’s the elevation of a ridge pushes transfer between hot interior and a plate toward a subduction zone. Slab pull occurs as the cooler exterior. weight of the subducting plate pulls a plate into a subduction zone.

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 1. Pangaea begin to break apart ____ years ago? a.

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 1. Pangaea begin to break apart ____ years ago? a. 65 million c. 200 million b. 135 million. d. 400 million Alfred Wegener hypothesized that Pangaea began to break apart 200 million years ago based on geologic evidence.

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 2. The oldest oceanic crust is generally located near what

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 2. The oldest oceanic crust is generally located near what feature? a. ridge c. abyssal plain b. trench d. rift Subduction occurs in a trench, meaning that oceanic crust at a trench is older than any crust closer to a ridge. A rift is a valley that forms along the axis of a ridge. It is in the rift that new seafloor is created.

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 3. The San Andreas Fault is an example of what

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 3. The San Andreas Fault is an example of what kind of boundary? a. divergent c. transform b. convergent d. rift Two plates sliding past each other form the San Andreas Fault. The San Andreas Fault is a rare example of a transform boundary that occurs on a continent.

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 4. Which device was instrumental in determining the age of

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 4. Which device was instrumental in determining the age of the ocean floor? a. magnetometer c. sonar b. isochron d. seismometer A magnetometer allowed scientists to match patterns magnetic patterns in the seafloor with known patterns and ages of land-based material. From this they could determine the age of the ocean floor.

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 5. The oldest part of the seafloor is approximately ____

Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 5. The oldest part of the seafloor is approximately ____ years old. a. 70 million c. 260 million b. 180 million d. 430 million The discovery that the seafloor is geologically young was one of the major factors in proposing theory of seafloor spreading. There are examples, for comparison, of continental rocks that are 3. 8 billion years old.

Chapter Assessment Short Answer 6. Why are there more volcanoes around the rim of

Chapter Assessment Short Answer 6. Why are there more volcanoes around the rim of the Pacific Ocean the Atlantic Ocean? There are subduction zones located around the periphery of the Pacific Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the seafloor is spreading, but with the exception of Caribbean, there are no subduction zones.

Chapter Assessment Short Answer 7. Why was Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift rejected when

Chapter Assessment Short Answer 7. Why was Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift rejected when it was first proposed? Two unanswered questions—what forces could move continents and how continents could move without shattering—were the main reasons that the hypothesis of continental drift was rejected when it was first proposed.

Chapter Assessment True or False 8. Identify whether the following statements are true or

Chapter Assessment True or False 8. Identify whether the following statements are true or false Wegener called his hypothesis Pangaea. ______ false Magnetic reversal events are longer in duration than epochs. ______ true There around a dozen major plates. ______ true Slab push is a process that is associated with an ocean ridge. ______ false Folded mountain ranges are the result of a convergent boundary involving oceanic crust and continental crust.

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