- Slides: 33
“Don’t ask what the world needs. Ask what makes you come alive, and go do it. Because what the world needs is people who have come alive. ” - Howard Thurman It’s possible to lead a cow upstairs, but not downstairs.
The French Revolution 1789 -1799 The Causes of the French Revolution
• Causes of the French Revolution
The Causes • The Worsening Financial Condition of the Government. • Economic Depression • New Ideas of the Enlightenment Movement
• Enlightenment Philosophers: Locke, Voltaire, and Montesquieu
John Locke 1632 -1704
The Enlightenment Political Philosophers • John Locke 1632 -1704 • All people are born equal. • Power of government must come from the consent of the governed. • Life, liberty, and the ownership of property. • Freedom of the press, educational reform, and religious tolerance. • Overthrow of governments that do not protect basic human rights.
Voltaire (1694 -1778) and Montesquieu (1689 -1755)
The Enlightenment Political Philosophers • Voltaire (1694 -1778) - Freedom of speech • Montesquieu (1689 -1775) - Separation of power to maintain balance in government. - Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches of government. • Separation of Church and State.
Louis XVI • Highly educated, he supported Enlightenment thinking. • Sought to separate himself from the authoritative image of his predecessors. • Although beloved at first, his indecisiveness and conservatism led some to hate him as a symbol of perceived tyranny. • This image of him was created due to his mismanagement of the French government.
The Old Regime • The French government was an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy. • The French people were divided into 3 groups known as Estates: 1 st Estate: Higher Clergy 2 nd Estate: Nobility 3 rd Estate: Peasants, Bourgeoisie, and Lower Clergy. – about 98% of the population
Inequalities The Inequalities of the Third Estate: • Economic problems: Inequitable system of taxation. • Political problems: under representation in government. • Social problems: burden of war and national debt, bad economy, high taxes to support the lavish lifestyles of nobles and clergy, famine, and high bread prices.
The Estates-General • Was called by Louis XVI to address the worsening financial situation by changing the taxation system. • The Estates-General consisted of representatives from each Estate. • Each Estate had one vote, which immediately created an imbalance of power between the 3 rd and the 1 st and 2 nd Estates.
The Estates-General • The 3 rd Estate took it upon themselves to work around the stubbornness of the other two, and decided to convene by themselves to discuss matters while extending an invitation for the other two Estates to join them (many did because they recognized the power of the people). • The result of this separation was the creation of the National Assembly.
“Therefore, what is the Third Estate? Everything; and an everything shackled and oppressed. What would it be without the privileged order? Everything, but an everything free and flourishing. Nothing can succeed without it, everything would be infinitely better without the others. ” - Abbé Sieyès
The French Revolution 1789 -1799 The Moderate Stage
The National Assembly • Created by the 3 rd Estate due to the internal squabbling of the Estates-General. • Functioned independently, but were gradually joined by some of the nobles and the majority of the clergy. • Declared itself an “assembly not of the Estates but of the People. ”
The Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789
The Tennis Court Oath • Louis XVI opposed the formation of the Assembly and closed the Salle des États where they were meeting. • Fearing that a royal coup was imminent, the Assembly congregated in the King’s nearby tennis court as swore an oath to never separate and to create a new constitution. • This oath was both a revolutionary act and an assertion of political authority of the people rather than the monarch. • The Assembly received widespread support, such as the storming of Bastille, from the population and was able to effectively maintain control of the government.
• The Storming of the Bastille
The Storming of Bastille, July 14, 1789
The Storming of Bastille, July 14, 1789 • Started by the Parisians who were fearful of the royal troops’ presence and wanted to defend the National Constituent Assembly. • Bastille was seen as a symbol of tyranny from the monarchy. • Weapons were seized, 7 prisoners were freed, and the rioters were successful in helping the Assembly establish the new governmental structure “The Commune. ”
• The National Assembly Makes Some Important Changes: August, 1789 September, 1791
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 • The National Constituent Assembly used the U. S. Declaration of Independence as a model. • Includes fundamental rights such as freedom of speech, press, and religion, right to property, equality under law. • The Assembly also abolished feudalism, formulated a new taxation system, created a new constitution (D of R…), and laid the groundwork for a new French government.
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789
Women’s March on Versailles • Despite the National Constituent Assembly’s efforts in creating reforms, the fact still remained that many in the French population were starving. • On Oct. 5, 1789 the people of Paris, mainly working women, marched on Versailles in protest to the previous economic conditions under Louis XVI and bread shortages.
Women’s March on Versailles • The protestors also demanded that Louis stop the Royalist efforts to oppose the National Assembly and for Louis and his administration move to Pairs to help address the poverty situation. • On Oct. 6, 1789, Louis, his administration, and 20, 000 National Guards moved to Paris which effectively legitimized the National Constituent Assembly.