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Outlines Objectives. Definition of learning disabilities. Causes. Diagnosis Signs & Symptoms of learning disabilities. Types. Nursing interventions. Summary. Conclusion. References. Article.
objectives At the end of this seminar the students will be able to : 1. Define the meaning of learning disabilities within 5 min correctly. 2. Recognize the types, causes , signs & symptoms of learning disabilities within 30 min completely. 3. Identify the care for slow learner as community health nurse within 10 min accurately.
Defining learning disability. -Learning disabilities are neurologically-based processing problems. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math. -disorder that affects the brain’s ability to receive, process, store, and respond to information. -The hallmark sign of a learning disability is “a distinct and unexplained gap between a person's level of expected achievement and their performance”.
learning disability. Learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities ; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantages.
learning disability. Learning disabilities can affect a person’s ability in one or more of the following areas: Listening Speaking Reading Writing Spelling Reasoning Mathematics
Causes Learning disabilities are presumed to be disorders of the central nervous system and a variety of factors may contribute to their occurrence. Learning disabilities may be due to: 1. Heredity. 2. Problems during pregnancy and childbirth(use of drugs and alcohol during pregnancy, prolonged labor or lack of oxygen, premature birth ). .
Causes. 3. Metabolic disorder such as phenylketonuria. 4. illness or injury in early childhood affecting brain development, for example a road traffic accident. 5. Diet deficiencies & infections of mothers during pregnancy.
Diagnosis. 1. Intellectual limitations, sensory impairments, and adverse emotional, social, and environmental conditions may be the primary cause of low achievement and should not be confused with learning disabilities. 2. Documentation of underachievement in one or more areas is a necessary but insufficient criterion for the diagnosis of learning disabilities. 3. Diagnosis of learning disabilities must be based on an analysis of the individual's strengths as well as weaknesses. 4. Manifestations of learning disabilities, such as language impairment, can reduce performance on intelligence tests. Therefore, selection of tests and interpretation of results must acknowledge the influence of specific disabilities on intelligence measures
Diagnosis. full evaluation for a learning disability includes the following 3: 1. A medical examination, including a neurological exam, to identify or rule out other possible causes of the child's difficulties, including emotional disorders, intellectual and developmental disabilities, and brain diseases 2. Exploration of the developmental, social, and school performance 3. A discussion of family history Academic achievement testing and psychological assessment
Nursing diagnosis Impaired verbal communication Ø Impaired memory Ø Low self-esteem Ø Ineffective role performance Ø Anxiety Ø Risk for injury Ø Risk for suicide Ø ineffective coping Ø Impaired social interaction Ø
Signs and symptoms v The symptoms of learning disabilities are a diverse set of characteristics which affect development and achievement. v Some of these symptoms can be found in all individuals at some time during their development. However, a person with learning disabilities has a cluster of these symptoms which do not disappear as the person ages.
Preschool signs and symptoms of learning disabilities 1. Problems pronouncing words 2. Trouble finding the right word 3. Trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the week 4. Difficulty controlling crayons, pencils, and scissors or coloring within the lines 5. Trouble with buttons , learning to tie shoes
Ages 5 -9 signs and symptoms of learning disabilities 1. Trouble learning the connection between letters and sounds 2. Confuses basic words when reading 3. Consistently misspells words and makes frequent reading errors 4. Trouble learning basic math concepts 5. Difficulty telling time and remembering sequences 6. Slow to learn new skills
Ages 10 -13 signs and symptoms of learning disabilities 1. Difficulty with reading comprehension or math skills 2. Dislikes reading and writing; avoids reading aloud 3. Spells the same word differently in a single document 4. Poor organizational skills (bedroom, homework, desk is messy and disorganized) 5. Trouble following classroom discussions and expressing thoughts aloud 6. Poor handwriting
Types Of LDs. 1. Dyslexia. 2. Dyscalculia. 3. Dyspraxia. 4. Dysgraphia.
Dyslexia Learning disabilities in reading *Signs and Symptoms: -delayed onset of speech -Reads slowly. -Has trouble with spelling -May have difficulty with handwriting -Exhibits difficulty recalling known words - Reverse the order letters. -letter and number reversals (sees "b" for "d" or "p", or 'm' and 'w'. "6" for "9", "pots" for "stop" or "post")
dyscalculia. Learning disabilities in math. *Sign and symptoms: 1. have trouble with counting principles (such as counting by two or counting by fives). 2. Struggles to connect a number to a real-life situation, such as knowing that “ 3” can apply to any group that has three things in it — 3 cookies, 3 cars, 3 kids, etc. 3. Has difficulty learning and recalling basic math facts , such as 2+4 = 6. 4. Struggles to understand words related to math, such as greater than and less than
Dyspraxia Is a motor coordination disability. --Children with dyspraxia tend to struggle with balance and posture. --It can affect the development of gross motor skills like walking or jumping. It can also affect fine motor skills. These include things like the hand movements needed to write clearly.
*sign and symptoms: 1. Is unable to ride a tricycle or play ball 2. Has trouble grasping pencils and writing or drawing 3. Tries to avoid sports or gym class 4. Finds it difficult to stand for a long time as a result of weak muscle tone 5. Struggles with games and activities that require hand-eye coordination
Dysgraphia. -Affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. *Signs and Symptoms -Cramping of fingers while writing. -Odd wrist, arm, body, or paper orientations such as bending an arm into an L shape. - May feel pain while writing. -Excessive erasures. -Mixed upper case and lower case letters. -Misuse of lines and margins. - Has great difficulty thinking and writing at the same time (taking notes, creative writing. )
Dyslexia Dyscalculia Difficulty reading Difficulty with math Problems reading, writing, spelling, speaking Problems doing math problems, understanding time, using money Problems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideas Dysgraphia Difficulty with writing Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder) Difficulty with fine motor Problems with hand–eye skills coordination, balance, manual dexterity Dysphasia/Aphasia Difficulty with language Problems understanding spoken language, poor reading comprehension Auditory Processing Disorder Difficulty hearing differences between sounds Problems with reading, comprehension, language Visual Processing Disorder Difficulty interpreting visual information Problems with reading, math, maps, charts, symbols, pictures
What does a learning disability nurse do?
Nursing intervention for dyslexia
Reading * Give guidance on selected key words. * Provide articles which are clearly structured and well presented to minimize reading load. * Identify new subject vocabulary in texts. * Offer audio-visual sources on subject matter, e. g programmes, TV documentaries or discussions, videos – these can help with structure as well as content.
Spelling * Introduce new terms and concepts by writing them up on a board or projector. * Provide lists of vocabulary at the beginning of a module to allow students sufficient time to absorb terms. * Encourage the use of electronic spelling and grammar checkers.
Nursing interventions for dysgraphia Writing for two or more hours in a personal script that deteriorates over time can prove very stressful. Other methods for tackling these educational requirements may provide more rewarding results – for instance, the use of technologies such as video, computer generated or graphical presentations and laptops.
Nursing interventions for dyscalculia * Provide solution sheets to allow students to check their errors. * Consider using different colors for each aspect. * Provide clear definitions of new symbols. * Allow students to use a calculator. * Try to give both numerical and theoretical examples.
Nursing interventions dyspraxia * Break physical activities down into very simple • movement components * Play games that emphasis control, e. g. where movements are slowed right down or stopped on command (e. g. "slow motion" and "statues" games) * Encouraging the child to adopt a better sitting posture
Providing them easy to wear clothes e. g. Velcro on shoes instead of buckles or laces, elastic waist band in place of buttons or zips. Developing fine motor skills such as: cutting, pasting. Developing gross motor skills such as: catching and throwing a ball, riding a tricycle and jumping.
Other nursing interventions * Learn the specifics about your child’s learning disability (type , effects on learning disability, what cognitive skills are involved ). * Remember that the occurrence of errors does not mean failure * Encourage your child in order to develop special talents * Teach your child through the strengths
* helping to enable clients to have full and independent lives
Key skills for learning disability nurses * Excellent interpersonal skills * Care, compassion and empathy with patients * Team working skills * Verbal and written communication skills * Resilience, stamina and patience
Conclusion. If you suspect that your child's learning difficulties may require special assistance, please do not delay in finding support. The sooner you move forward, the better your child's chances for reaching his or her full potential.
References. http: //www. helpguide. org/articles/learning- disabilities/learning-disabilities-anddisorders. htm. https: //ldaamerica. org/types-of-learningdisabilities/dysgraphia/ https: //ldaamerica. org/symptoms-of-learningdisabilities/ http: //www. pbs. org/parents/education/learning -disabilities/basics/what-is-a-learningdisability/