Dominant Functions of Settlements Dominant Functions of Settlements

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Dominant Functions of Settlements

Dominant Functions of Settlements

Dominant Functions of Settlements • When we describe functions of a settlement we describe

Dominant Functions of Settlements • When we describe functions of a settlement we describe the main areas of employment • There are 4 categories (industries) of jobs

Dominant Functions of Settlements Primary – any job that deals with the extraction of

Dominant Functions of Settlements Primary – any job that deals with the extraction of raw material from the natural environment (forestry, mining, farming)

Dominant Functions of Settlements Secondary – any job that processes raw materials (primary manufacturing

Dominant Functions of Settlements Secondary – any job that processes raw materials (primary manufacturing – extraction of iron from iron ore) OR - Use the product of primary manufacturing to make a finished product (secondary manufacturing – making steel from iron)

Dominant Functions of Settlements

Dominant Functions of Settlements

Dominant Functions of Settlements Tertiary – jobs that provide a service (bank teller, dentist)

Dominant Functions of Settlements Tertiary – jobs that provide a service (bank teller, dentist) – fastest growing sector in Canada (around 75% of working population employed in this industry)

Dominant Functions of Settlements Quaternary – jobs that are involved with the communication of

Dominant Functions of Settlements Quaternary – jobs that are involved with the communication of information ( teaching, research, computer programming, technology sector)

Dominant Functions of Settlements • When you describe the present function of a town

Dominant Functions of Settlements • When you describe the present function of a town or city they you are describing the main area of employment for the population of the city

Dominant Functions of Settlements • Factors that influence the function of a settlement is

Dominant Functions of Settlements • Factors that influence the function of a settlement is population and location • Eg. Niagara Falls – area of scenic beauty attracts million of tourists – jobs in the tourist industry (accommodation and food) would be high (10. 5% of the population works in this industry)

NIAGARA FALLS

NIAGARA FALLS

Dominant Functions of Settlements • Large cities are more diverse -have people employed in

Dominant Functions of Settlements • Large cities are more diverse -have people employed in many sectors of the economy (Toronto) • Provide services to a wide surrounding area (multi-functional)

Dominant Functions of Settlements • Small cities – have people employed in fewer sectors

Dominant Functions of Settlements • Small cities – have people employed in fewer sectors of the economy (Saguenay) • Usually provide services for small towns/villages immediately adjacent to the city • Often these cities have specialized functions

Dominant Functions of Settlements • When a city has a high percent of employment

Dominant Functions of Settlements • When a city has a high percent of employment in a particular activity, this activity is described as the urban centre’s dominant function. • Eg. Manufacturing in Hong Kong, Public Administration in Ottawa

Dependence on Single Industry - Tilt Cove

Dependence on Single Industry - Tilt Cove

Location Quotients • The percentage of a city’s workforce in any employment category when

Location Quotients • The percentage of a city’s workforce in any employment category when compared to the national average for that category. The location quotient is expressed as a ratio • Eg. LQ 1. 6 means 1. 6 time as many people work in manufacturing in Hamilton, in 1985, than in Canada as a whole

Location Quotients • The percentage of a city’s workforce in any employment category when

Location Quotients • The percentage of a city’s workforce in any employment category when compared to the national average for that category. The location quotient is expressed as a ratio • Eg. LQ 1. 6 means 1. 6 times as many people work in manufacturing in Hamilton, in 1985, than in Canada as a whole

Location Quotients • When comparing L. Q. it is important to compare L. Q.

Location Quotients • When comparing L. Q. it is important to compare L. Q. ’s for cities of comparable size • When a city’s function is dependent on one or two sectors of the economy and that sector decreases (manufacturing) what are the possible outcomes

Location Quotients • The city must diversify (Hamilton) • The city experiences decline (people

Location Quotients • The city must diversify (Hamilton) • The city experiences decline (people move out and abandon the city (Youngstown Ohio, Flint Michigan)

Location Quotients Buick City – Flint Michigan Steel Mill – Youngstown, Ohio

Location Quotients Buick City – Flint Michigan Steel Mill – Youngstown, Ohio