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Do Now p List the most important “thing” you have learned so far in this class! p Write at least one question for Dr. Miller – He is a master biologist and can answer just about ANYTHING!
Dr. Miller American cell biologist and molecular biologist who is currently Professor of Biology and Royce Family Professor for Teaching Excellence at Brown University. p Miller's primary research focus is the structure and function of cell membranes, especially chloroplast thylakoid membranes. p
Objectives p Review fundamental concepts about cells by listing the most important ideas. p Complete a biology test to see how much you have learned so far by comparing to the baseline. p Prepare for midterm exam by setting up studying plans.
This Class (Analogy)
Do Now p How will you study for the midterm? p What grade do you expect to earn? How will it affect your current grade in this class?
Objectives p Engage in a discussion with Dr. Miller and expand on learned biological concepts by connecting ideas and asking questions. p Summarize the main components of Dr. Miller’s presentation.
The Cell Review http: //www. comedycentral. com /video-clips/vxg 0 ck/comedycentral-presents-paper-trail
Cells Marks the boundary between the “living and the dead” p Structural and functional unit of an organism p Smallest structure capable of performing all of the functions necessary for life p
What is a cell? p Why do we care? n n We have TRILLIONS of them!! (@65) Every organism is composed of one or more cells Basic unit of structure and function in organisms All come from pre-existing cells Cell Theory
All cells……. Have an outer plasma membrane p Contain DNA p n p Enclosed within the cell somewhere Contain cytoplasm
Plasma Membrane and Cytoplasm p p All cells surrounded by a plasma membrane n Phospholipid bilayer material inside a cell is the cytoplasm n Everything between the plasma membrane and the region of DNA n Gives cells their shape n Assist in movement of cell and organelles
Microscopes p Compound light microscope n Multiple lenses increase magnifying power
Two basic kinds of cells p Prokaryotic n p Nothing separates the DNA from internal cell parts Eukaryotic n n Contain organelle sacs Nucleus – contains the DNA
Examples of Eukaryotic Cells: Animal p Plant p Fungi p Protozoa p
Cell Walls p Plant cells n n n Permeable Protective In addition to a plasma membrane
Organelles p Organelles act as their own separate “organs” n n They physically isolate chemical reactions inside cells Animals and plants will differ in their organelles
Nucleus p p p Encloses the DNA of a eukaryotic cell Contains chromosomes Functions: n Prevents DNA from getting entangled with structures in the cytoplasm n Outer membranes act as a boundary
Components of the nucleus Nuclear pores p Nuclear envelope p Nucleolus p Nucleoplasm p DNA p n n Chromosomes Chromatin
Nuclear envelope p p p Double-membrane system composed of lipid bilayer (with pores) Bilayers surround the fluid part of nucleus (nucleoplasm) Continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleolus p p Dense mass located within the nucleus Produces ribosomes
Ribosomes p Site of protein synthesis p p p Occurs in the cytoplasm Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum Differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes n Why is this important from a health aspect?
Endomembrane System p Helps modify proteins into final form n Lipids are assembled Compartmentalizes the cell p Main components: p n n 1. 2. 3. 4. Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Golgi body Various vesicles (transport)
1. Nuclear envelope p p Merges with the membrane of the ER Consists of membranous channels and saccules
2. Endoplasmic Reticulum p p p Channel that snakes through the cytoplasm Lipids assembled and polypeptide chains modified into final proteins Can be rough or smooth n n Dependant on the attachments of ribosomes Rough ER p n Processing and modification of proteins Smooth ER p Synthesizes phospholipids
3. Golgi Body (Apparatus) p p p Series of flattened sacs Collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids Contain enzymes that put the finishing touches on proteins and lipids
4. Vesicles p Enzymes from golgi apparatus sort and package the molecules into vesicles n n n Tiny sac that moves through cytoplasm Function in transport, storage, or digestion of substances Two main types: Lysosomes p Peroxisomes p
Lysosome p A lysosome is a membrane-enclosed sac n contains digestive enzymes to break down: p p Macromolecules damaged organelles
Put it all together……
Energy-Related Organelles p organelles specialize in converting energy to a form that can be used by the cell n n p Chloroplasts n n p Requires solar energy Dissipates as heat Use solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates Carbohydrates then broken down in the…. . Mitochondria n Produce ATP molecules
Energy-Related Organelles q Photosynthesis p Cellular Respiration n The chemical energy of carbohydrates is converted at ATP
Cytoskeleton: Cilia and Flagella - Movement p p Hairlike projections Help in the movement of cells Some examples…. Why would we need them?
Vacuoles p Membranous sacs n n contractile vacuoles of protists central vacuoles of plants
Prokaryotes Archae Bacteria
Prokaryotic Cells p Cell Wall p Capsule p Flagellum p Plasma membrane p Nucleoid p Plasmids p Ribosomes