- Slides: 38
Do Now: 1. 27. 04 n n n Set up Notebook 1/3 2/3 Final Notes of French Rev. Notes Title: The Phases of the French Revolution Examination on Thursday: the French Revolution and Napoleon
The French Revolution; Quiz #2 Define, Identify or Explain the Following: n The National Constituent Assembly n The Great Fear n The Sans Culottes n The Continental System n The Napoleonic Code n
The French Revolution Where we? n Oh yes, revolution. n Revolution is Change n What has happened in France from 1789 to 1795, before Napoleon “bum rushes” the National Directory ? n Let’s back track… n
The French Revolution n 1789 was a big year… National Constituent Assembly breaks from the Estates general The Declaration of the Rights of Man n Free Speech n Free Press n Freedom of Assembly n Free from unlawful imprisonment
The French Revolution n n By the end of 1789, we have the King and queen virtual prisoners in Paris, The National Constituent Assembly is making moves, trying to establish a Constitutional Monarchy The assembly will try and decentralize power and place power in local governments. This is a great idea, but a real problem to make happen. What is next?
The French Revolution Big moves in 1790: n Civil Constitution of the Clergy n Makes the Catholic Church (clergy) essentially a department/employees of the state n It is a way for the Assembly to get back at the church for years of favoritism n But, it backfires because most Frenchmen are believers, and fear this kind of change n
The French Revolution 1790 continued… n The Assembly breaks up the local provinces, and takes further power away from the monarchy n A good idea, but it makes collecting taxes even more difficult n No matter what your ideas, if your new government has less money, change will be harder to implement. n
The French Revolution 1791. We are about two years deep in the revolution, and change is still in the air. However, this change is not always what you think, being good for the “people” n Chaplier Law is passed by the Assembly n This forbids any workers unions from forming n They fear the urban worker organizing n It shows that even the Revolutionaries are still elitist: They don not believe in the “little guy” n
The French Revolution Less than a week after the Chaplier Law is passed, Louis XVI and his wife are caught trying to flee the country n That does not reflect a spirit of cooperation from the monarch. n It is at this point that his goose is really “cooked” n It also gives the Assembly a chance to force a constitution on the King, and he gladly signs. n
The French Revolution n Constitution of 1791: the King agrees to: A limited Monarchy and a Legislative assembly n All judges are to be elected n n But, notice what happens for voting rights… Only those who have paid taxes = to three days pay for an average laborer can vote n Essentially, voting is restricted to the wealthy n This supports the fact that it is a revolution of the rich against the very rich n
The French Revolution n Lets review for a moment about the strengths and weaknesses of the National Constituent Assembly n *Used to be the Third Estate
The French Revolution n n n Strengths Declaration of the Rights of Man Abolish the Old Regime Limited Monarchy Decentralizes Power Curbs the Power of the Church n n n Weaknesses No Universal Suffrage (voting) Rising Inflation Mobs are unchecked Slavery not abolished in colonies
The French Revolution Don’t forget that outside of France, there is a great deal of pressure from other European Monarchs n Why? ? ? n They do not want the ideas of revolution working their way to their areas: n Austria Prussia Russia England
The French Revolution 1792 will be a year of greater change! n Big hits and misses: n France is threatened that Paris will “Burn to the Ground” if the King and his family are hurt n There is also a split within the Assembly (the Jacobins) They will fight over what type of government they want. n
The French Revolution n n Conservative Jacobins (Girondists) Want to keep a Monarchy that answers to a Legislative Assembly n n Radical Jacobins (The Mountain) Want to establish a republic, and that means the King Must go!
The French Revolution Either way, this means that the Revolution is beginning to break apart, and will begin to consume itself. n By Late 1792, the Constitutional Monarchy is over n Louis and his wife are prisoners n In September, the people take to the streets and thousands are killed, many of them priests and aristocrats. n
The French Revolution n The Assembly is now called the National Convention, and their slogan is: Liberty n Equality n Fraternity Yet, when we see the Reign of Terror, we will see the same types of repression used under any King n
The French Revolution The radicals are worried about France being invaded by England, among other countries n They will use that to pass the law called the “levee en mass” – which is the first real way to draft people into the military n It gives France a huge Army, and also promotes a sense of nationalism n
The French Revolution The Radicals, lead by Maximilien Robespierre, set up a committee of public safety, which is to protect the people and keep order n The Committee uses its power to oust the Conservatives from the Revolutionary government, and it also begins to execute the enemies of the Republic. n This period of time is known as the Reign of Terror n
The French Revolution The Reign of terror lasts from Mid-1793 to mid 1794 n Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are its first victims n Both King and Queen are lead to the guillotine in November of 1793 n Soon afterward, the Reign of terror would get out of control, and begin turning on itself. n
Do Now: 1. 30. 03 Set up Notebook 1/3 2/3 n Hand in Hmwk #3. n Notes Title: Napoleonic Europe n Homework #4. Pages 508 -520 for Tuesday 1/3 2/3 notes. n Quiz #1. Study notes for 5 minutes. n
The French Revolution n They would use the Guillotine as their method of execution, and by the end of the Reign of terror, roughly 25, 000 people would meet their deaths. Most of those who were killed were poor members of the urban working class, victims of the Terror. A number of clergy and nobility die as well, but it will get so out of hand that Robespierre himself and he will be sent to his death after he kills many of his own associates.
The French Revolution The Reign of Terror ends with the death of Robespierre and the backlash of those who had been persecuted by the radicals n These conservatives set up a new government to try and maintain order n The New Government is called the National Directory n It doesn’t have a King, but it is still favorable to the wealthy n
The French Revolution In Africa, there is a gifted general leading France against Great Britain n Napoleon views the chaos in France with great interest! n As much as France does not want another King, they do want better control than the Directory can give them. n Napoleon will seek power while “serving” his country. n
The French Revolution n With the rise of Napoleon, who will become Emperor for life by 1802, we see the “death of the Revolution and the beginning of a New phase in French history, as well as the history of Europe Napoleon will both try and appease the Old nobility and also spread the ideals of the Revolution. He will try an conquer all of Europe, for himself more so than for France.
The French Revolution n n Napoleonic France. He takes control of France in a coup de Etat: which means literally to seize the state. The Directory, which became the government after the Reign of Terror called napoleon for help, and he took advantage of the situation. He will become beloved and popular as he brings France into a new age
The French Revolution By 1802, Napoleon has himself crowned Emperor for life of France. n He, or any of his family will be assured this title, forever! n If we look at the polices of Napoleon, we can see him try and appease the “old guard” of France, and also promote the ideals of the Revolution. n
The French Revolution Key moves made by Napoleon: n Economics: he controlled prices supported new industry and financed the building of new roads and canals. n Education: It was Napoleon that began the concept of public education in France: taking the education monopoly away from the church! n
The French Revolution n n He will also establish the Napoleonic Code. This was a legal and moral code that he would enforce, not just in France but into other sections of Europe as he conquered them It focused on ideals like religious toleration and legal equality He also attacked the kind of privilege that allowed aristocrats advantages that commoners did not have
The French Revolution Napoleon set his sights very high: control of all Europe! n He was successful everywhere except Britain and Russia n He established family members and associates in power positions, replacing many monarchs and dynasties n This of course made him very unpopular. n
The French Revolution What leads to the fall of Napoleon? n He creates a feeling of nationalism wherever he goes…unfortunately, this nationalism is directed against him n Though he was a great general, he makes a gigantic mistake by trying to invade Russia in 1812. n Problems with the Russian Campaign? ? ? n
The French Revolution n n He begins the invasion in the Fall…this means that he will have to fight during the Russian winter The Russian use a scorched earth policy: n n As they retreat, they burn everything: crops and farms They draw Napoleon farther and farther into Russia As he is drawn farther and farther into Russia, ha and his troops arte stretched too thin He eventually has to retreat as the Russian sneak attack and he is cut off from supplies
The French Revolution n n Napoleon will abdicate his throne in 1814, and is sent into exile He escapes from exile, and returns to France for his 100 days…his last attempt at ruling France In the mean time, England, Austria, Russian and Prussia had allied against him He meets his final defeat at the battle of Waterloo in 1815, and is then banished forever From France
The French Revolution How can we look the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Age in the Long View? n Are there lessons that can be learned? n Effects of the French Revolution… n
The French Revolution n Democratic Ideals: Liberty from absolute monarchs n Social equality and justice n An end to the system of landed aristocrats having advantages over the middle class n Nationalist sentiment, both ethnic and political rises in Europe n
The French Revolution Conservative Backlash n The big Four: n Russia n Britain n Prussia n Austria n Will have a meeting, the Congress of Vienna. n The purpose of this congress will be to… n
The French Revolution Set new political boundaries around France n Re-establish monarchs where they had been deposed by Napoleon n Try and regain the Old Order, and fight against democratic movements n Make sure that France will not be able to rise against Europe in the near future n
The French Revolution n We are left with the struggle between the Conservative order of Europe, and the rising feelings of nationalism and liberalism.