Do deformation bands matter for flow Insights from

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Do deformation bands matter for flow? Insights from permeability measurements and flow simulations in

Do deformation bands matter for flow? Insights from permeability measurements and flow simulations in porous carbonate rocks by Atle Rotevatn, Heidi S. Fossmark, Eivind Bastesen, Elin Thorsheim, and Anita Torabi Petroleum Geoscience Volume 23(1): 104 -119 February 1, 2017 © 2017 The Author(s)

(a) Map showing the location of major normal faults in Malta. Atle Rotevatn et

(a) Map showing the location of major normal faults in Malta. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Tectonostratigraphic log of the Oligocene–Quaternary age sediments of the Maltese archipelago. Atle Rotevatn et

Tectonostratigraphic log of the Oligocene–Quaternary age sediments of the Maltese archipelago. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Overview of sample types collected for thin section and core plug analyses. Atle Rotevatn

Overview of sample types collected for thin section and core plug analyses. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Porosity and permeability data. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119

Porosity and permeability data. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

(a) Photomicrograph of deformation band showing the spatial variability of permeability values as determined

(a) Photomicrograph of deformation band showing the spatial variability of permeability values as determined from image analysis. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

(a) Outcrop of an anastomosing network of deformation bands; see Figure 1 c for

(a) Outcrop of an anastomosing network of deformation bands; see Figure 1 c for location indicated by red star. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Hierarchical overview of models built and simulated in this study. Atle Rotevatn et al.

Hierarchical overview of models built and simulated in this study. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Simulated production of the low-permeable host rock cases (LL-cases) shown by oil saturation through

Simulated production of the low-permeable host rock cases (LL-cases) shown by oil saturation through different time steps; four time steps are shown. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Simulated production of the high-permeable host rock cases (HH-cases) shown by oil saturation through

Simulated production of the high-permeable host rock cases (HH-cases) shown by oil saturation through different time steps; four time steps are shown. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Oil saturation through four steps of simulated production showing a comparison of how host

Oil saturation through four steps of simulated production showing a comparison of how host rock models with high (1000 m. D) and low (150 m. D) permeabilities respond to the introduction of deformation bands that are one order of magnitude less permeable than the host rock. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Time to water breakthrough for the two production wells in the different model runs.

Time to water breakthrough for the two production wells in the different model runs. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Diagram showing the local impact of the deformation band network on oil saturation in

Diagram showing the local impact of the deformation band network on oil saturation in model LL_1 ORD, illustrating the controls of the deformation bands on the nature of waterfront propagation. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)

Diagram showing the local impact of the deformation band network on oil saturation in

Diagram showing the local impact of the deformation band network on oil saturation in model HH_3 ORD, illustrating the controls of the deformation bands on the nature of waterfront propagation. Atle Rotevatn et al. Petroleum Geoscience 2017; 23: 104 -119 © 2017 The Author(s)