- Slides: 24
DNA "The Blueprint of Life"
DNA stands for. . . Deoxyribo. Nucleic Acid
DNA FACTS ●established by James Watson and Francis Crick ●Shape of a double helix
●codes for your genes (traits) ●made of repeating subunits called nucleotides
What is a nucleotide? Has three parts: PHOSPHATE DEOXYRIBOSE (sugar) BASE (A, T, G, C) Phosphate Base Sugar
Base-Pair Rule Adenine <==> Thymine Guanine <==> Cytosine The sides of the DNA ladder are phosphate & sugar held together by hydrogen bonds
Base Pair Rule One side: A T A T C A T G C G G G Other side:
What is the relationship between GENES and DNA?
How the Code Works The combination of A, T, G, C determines what traits you might have. . . C A T = purple hair T A C = yellow hair
Think of the bases of DNA like letters. Letters form words. . Words form sentences. . *endless combinations
Let's Review What We Know About DNA 1. DNA stands for: De _____ ribo ______ acid 2. What is the shape of DNA? _______ 3. Who established the structure of DNA? ______ and _______ 4. Adenine always pairs with ________ 5. The sides of the DNA ladder are deoxyribose and ________
6. Guanine always pairs with _______ 7. What is the complementary sequence: C A T T A G 8. The two sides of DNA are held together by _______ bonds. 9. DNA is composed of repeating subunits called ___________ 10. What are the 4 bases that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder? __________
DNA REPLICATION the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself (cell division) SEMI-CONSERVATIVE - half of the old strand is saved
RNA - the messenger *single strand *ribose sugar *contains no thymine, uracil instead *follows base pair rule, but A ⇒ U DNA: A T A G C G RNA:
RNA carries the "message" to the ribosomes, where proteins are made
What is a gene? A section of DNA, with many bases that codes for a protein Results in a TRAIT
Biology 2 A Advanced Section How does DNA make a protein?
DNA --> RNA --> Proteins are the building blocks of the organism (traits)
Transcription - process where RNA is made from DNA Translation - process where proteins are made from RNA