- Slides: 19
DNA… WHAT IS IT!? !? ! DNA stands for DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID DNA holds genetic information in cells DNA is a nucleic acid polymer. › The monomer of a nucleic acid is a nucleotide. Nucleotides have 3 components: Sugar Phosphate Nitrogen base
Complimentary base pairing Adenine pairs with Thymine Guanine pairs with Cytosine The size of the purine weakly hydrogen bonded to a pyrimidine creates a DNA strand that is equal in width
Complimentary base pairing continued The opposite arrangement of the nucleotides gives the DNA strands direction and allows for the antiparallel orientation.
Complimentary base pairing continued The covalent bond between the Get outand your sugar phosphate nucleotide…number the on your thegives carbons DNA two nucleotide STRONG now backbones
ANOTHER NUCLEIC ACID RNA › RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid › It acts as a messenger between DNA and the cytoplasmic tools that make proteins RNA is different from DNA … › RNA contains the sugar RIBOSE › RNA is single stranded › RNA contains the nitrogen base Uracil and does NOT contain Thymine
REVIEW Describe the contributions of the following scientists in the discovery of genetic material. Your description may be in sentence, table, picture, poetry, and/or cartoon format. 1. Frederick Griffith 2. Oswald Avery 3. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase 4. Erwin Chargaff 5. Linus Pauling, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins 6. James Watson and Francis Crick
Replication What is it? Why does it happen? › The DNA molecule copies itself for the new cells When does it happen? During the cell cycle(interphase/synthesis) just before mitosis and/or meiosis.
Replicate! What is the complimentary strand for this segment of DNA? GCTACTGGACATTA CGATGACCTGTAAT END RESULT Two identical DNA molecules!
Results? Replication simple › http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=hf. Z 8 o 9 D 1 tus Project example of replication › http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Bju 4 C 5 Gxe. Qs › Replication with leading and lagging strand › http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=v. NXFk_d 6 y 80
Semi-conservative replication Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl studied DNA replication using E. coli and isotopes of Nitrogen. They developed a model of DNA replication that showed a semi-conservative process. Original splits Half is conserved & half is new in each new strand
How does it happen? The enzyme helicase attaches at the origin of replication and breaks the hydrogen bonds and unzips the 2 DNA strands in both directions. Complimentary bases (from the cytoplasm/nucleus) attach to both unzipped strands. The enzyme DNA polymerase bonds the sugarphosphate ladder sides and the nucleotide ladder rungs to the 3’ end of the DNA molecule.
How does it happen? Continued… Two strands of DNA are replicated in different directions › Strand one (the leading strand 5’ 3’) can replicate continuously
How does it happen? Continued… › Strand two (the lagging strand 3’ 5’) is replicated in pieces (discontinuously). The Okazaki fragments are connected by enzyme DNA ligase. Errors and damage in DNA are fixed by DNA polymerases and DNA ligase.