DNA Regents Biology Proteins Multipurpose molecules Regents Biology

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DNA Regents Biology

DNA Regents Biology

Proteins: Multipurpose molecules Regents Biology 2006 -2007

Proteins: Multipurpose molecules Regents Biology 2006 -2007

Proteins Examples u muscle u fingernails, claws u skin u hair u enzymes §

Proteins Examples u muscle u fingernails, claws u skin u hair u enzymes § example: pepsin u hormones insulin hemoglobin § example: insulin Regents Biology collagen (skin)

Proteins § Function: u many, many functions § hormones w insulin § movement w

Proteins § Function: u many, many functions § hormones w insulin § movement w muscle § immune system w protect against germs § enzymes w help chemical reactions Regents Biology

Proteins § Building block = amino acids amino amino acid – acid u 20

Proteins § Building block = amino acids amino amino acid – acid u 20 different amino acids H O H | || —N— —C—C—OH | H variable Regents Biology group

Amino acid chains § Proteins u amino acids chained into a polymer amino acid

Amino acid chains § Proteins u amino acids chained into a polymer amino acid amino acid § Each amino acid is different u some “like” water & dissolve in it u some “fear” water & separate from it Regents Biology

Water-fearing amino acids § Hydrophobic “water fearing” amino acids u try to get away

Water-fearing amino acids § Hydrophobic “water fearing” amino acids u try to get away from water in cell u § the protein folds Regents Biology

Water-loving amino acids § Hydrophillic “water loving” amino acids u try to stay in

Water-loving amino acids § Hydrophillic “water loving” amino acids u try to stay in water in cell u § the protein folds Regents Biology

3 -D protein structure § Proteins fold & twist into 3 -D shape u

3 -D protein structure § Proteins fold & twist into 3 -D shape u that’s what happens in the cell! hemoglobin growth hormone Regents Biology pepsin collagen

Its shape that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because § of their shape

Its shape that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because § of their shape Unfolding a protein destroys its shape wrong shape = can’t do its job u unfolding proteins = “denature” u § temperature § p. H (acidity) folded Regents Biology unfolded “denatured”

Let’s eat some Proteins! Regents Biology 2006 -2007

Let’s eat some Proteins! Regents Biology 2006 -2007